高考英语知识点总结(超全版)

高考英语知识点总结(超全版)

时间:2020-02-12 06:18 作者:admin 点击:
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②We must learn more to enable us to face all the difficulties.我们要多学知识以便能面对各种困难。 disable:有残疾的,不能干的;the disabled表示一类人(残疾人) able作词辍时

①可以„„的,值得„„的(有被动含义)

eatable可食用的,measurable可以测量、估计的;readable可读的 ②其他含义:conformable舒适的、安逸的;suitable 合适的,恰当的

3.above, over, on

三个词都可以表示“在„„上“,但用法不同。On表示与某物体表面接触;over表示在某物体垂直的上方,含“布满、覆盖、跨越”之意,与under 相对;above表示位置高于,但不一定垂直,与below相对。注意:与数字、数量、长度词连用时,多用over,同more than。如:over10,000people一万多人;表示年龄、刻度多用above,如a man above fifty五十开外的人;above zero零度以上。 习惯用语:well above average远在一般以上;above sea-level海拔以上;the one above上面的一个;above all首先,尤其重要的是;over there 那边;all over 遍及;over again 再一遍;over and over再三地

[应用]介词填空

①There lay an umbrella_______the table and some raincoats _____it.

②The mother held an umbrella______the boy’s head so that the sun wouldn’t burn him.

③ There seemed to be a war and many planes were flying____the city. ④The moon was______the trees in the east. Key:①on,under ②over ③over ④above above all 首先,特别是,最重要的是 after all 到底,毕竟

at all (用来加强语气)与not连用,表示“一点也不,完全不”。 in all 总共

all but 几乎,差点没(=almost,nearly) ①We have all but finished the work. ②The day turned out fine after all.

③Children need many things ,but above all they need love.

④He wasn’t at all tired.

⑤Do you feel ill at all(真的,确实)? ⑥There were twenty in all at the party. accident/event/ incident event一般指重大事件。accident多指意外或偶然发生的事故,特别是不幸的、有损害性的事故。incident相对于accident来说,显得不很重要,指“小事件”,它还可以用来表示“事变”,如叛乱、爆炸等。如:

The broadcaster is broadcasting the news on current events.广播员正在播报时事新闻。

He was badly injured in the traffic accident.在那起交通事故中,他严重受伤。

There was an incident on the bus: a man fought with the conductor.那辆公共汽车上发生了一件事,有个人和售票员打了起来。

Have you heard of Xi’an Incident?你听说过“西安事变”吗?

admit vt.①接纳,许可„„进入(allow sb./sth.to enter)

He was admitted to the school this year.Only two hundred boys and girls are admitted to our school every year.

②承认,后可接名词,doing、从句或复合结构。 I admit my fault. She admitted having read the letter. He admitted that his comprehension was weak. You must admit the task to be difficult. advice建议;劝告。是不可数名词,“一条建议”应用a piece of advice。常用结构。

give sb.advice(on)/give advice给某人提(关于„„的)建议;忠告某人。

ask(sb.)for advice征求(某人的)意见。

①Marx gave us some good advice on how to learn a

foreign language.

关于如何学好外语,马克思给我们提了些好建议。 ②If you take /follow my advice, you’ll pass the exam.如果你听从我的建议,你会考试及格的。 ③Let’s ask our teacher for some advice.咱们征求一下老师的意见吧。

admire(= respect / praise)vt.羡慕,钦佩,夸奖 admire sb.(for sth.)佩服某人某事

Visitors to Beijing greatly admire our Palace Museum. 去北京的游人极其羡慕我们的故宫。 I admire him for his wisdom.我佩服他的智慧。别忘了夸奖孩子。

对比:envy(= jealous)vt.嫉妨,羡慕

envy sb.(sth.)嫉妒/羡慕某人某事 We all envy you your good future. 我们都很羡慕你的好运。 advise sb. to do sth.建议某人做某事(suggest不这样用)。

①I advise you to take the chance.我建议你抓住机会。

②—What do you advise me to do?你建议我怎么办?

—I advise you not to lose heart; just keep on.我劝你不要灰心,继续干。

advise 还可同suggest一样,后接名词、代词、动名词(短语)和that从句(用虚拟语气)作宾语。 ①—What would you advise?你有什么建议吗?—I advise you an early start我建议你早点出发。

②I advise holding a metting to discuss the problem.我建议召开一次会议来讨论这个问题。

③I advise you (should) go to once.我建议你马上去。advise ,persuade

persuade sb. to do sth.意为“说服某人做某事”,强调劝说成功,说服;advise sb. to do sth. 意为“劝说某人做某事”,不涉及劝说是否有效,相当于try to persuade sb. to do sth.。如:

The doctor persuaded my father to give up smoking.医生说服我爸爸戒了烟。

The doctor advised my father to give up smoking, but failed.

医生劝我爸爸戒烟,但没成功。 advise; suggest

advise 与suggest 都可作“建议”讲,二者用法有同有异。

(1)相同点表示建议做某事,advise与suggest都可采用下列三种句型: ① + 名词 ② + 动名词

③ + that从句(从句中常用should加动词原形,should可以省略。)

eg. He advised/ suggested an early start. He advised/ suggested (our) starting early.

He advised/ suggested that we (should) start early. (注:只要是用从句表示建议该做的事,从句中就可用“should+动词原形”,should可以省略。)上面的第三句可转化为:

It was suggested that we (should) start early.

What he suggested was that we(should) start early. His suggestion was that we (should) start early. (2)不同点

①advise后可以跟人称代词作宾语,而suggest后不可以跟人称代词作宾语。故可以说:

advise sb. to do sth.; advise sb. against (doing) sth.; advise sb. on/ about sth.; suggest(to sb.)that...

前三种结构中不可将advise改为suggest,如: 他建议我们去参观博物馆。

[正]He advised us to go to visit the museum. [误]He suggested us to go to visit the museum.

[误]He suggested us that we go to visit the museum. ②suggest还有“暗示、表明、说、指出(一个事实)”的意思。此时从句中用陈述语气,不用虚拟语气。如:

The smile on his face suggested that he was pleased. Having examined carefully, the doctor suggested that the patient was seriously ill.(句中suggest陈述了一个事实,故用陈述语气。)比较:

Having examined carefully, the doctor suggested that the Patient be

operated on at once.(句中suggest表示建议该做某事,从句中用should加动词原形,should在从句中省略。)

affect(=have an effect on sth.)vt.影响(effect n.影响)

This may affect your health. 这或许会影响你的健康。

My throat is always affected by bad weather.我的嗓子总是受恶劣天气的影响。 afraid

1)“be afraid of+名词”,意为“害怕”。 2)“be afraid of doing sth”意为“担心,害怕„„”。 3)“be afraid for„”意为“为„„担心。” 4)“be afraid that„”意为“担心,恐怕”。 5)“be afraid to do ”意为“害怕,担心而不敢做某事”。

6)I’m afraid so/not.恐怕是这样/恐怕不会这样 [应用]完成句子

①女孩子一般都怕蛇。Girls are usually______

_____snakes.

②他怕把杯子打碎,因而很小心。He was careful because he was afraid______ _____the glass.

③你不为自己的安全担心吗?Are you afraid_______your safety?

④恐怕她会迷路。I am _____ _____she will lose her way.

⑤汤姆把钱丢了,也不敢告诉他母亲。Tom lost the money and was afraid________ ______his mother. Key:①afraid,of ②of,breaking ③for ④afraid,that ⑤to tell

again and again = time and time again = over and over = over and over again再三地

The old man thinks of his happy past again and again. 这位老人再三地想起他幸福的过去。 age

(1)n.年龄,时代,时期

The old man died at the age of 80/when he was 80 years of age/when he was 80 years old. 那位老人80岁时去世了。

He is young for his age. 就他的年龄而论,他是年轻的。

What is the age of the church? 这座教堂多少年了?

He was the greatest poet of the age. 他是那个时代最伟大的诗人。 (2)vi./vt. 变老

He is aging fast. Worry ages a man. 他老得很快。忧虑令人老!

I found him greatly aged. 我发现他老多了。 拓展:(1)adj. aged„„岁的,年老的

a boy aged ten 一个10岁的男孩 an aged man老人

(2)人生的七期

baby→infant→child→youth→manhood→middle age→old age

婴儿/0→幼儿7→儿童12→青年28→壮年40→中年65→老年

agree 同意。常用桔构:

(1)agree on 对„„取得一致意见或达成协议,一般表示原双方共同商讨以后达成协议的名词)。主语必须是两者以上。也常用被动语态,表示“(某事)是大家都同意的”。如:

①They agreed on the date for the next meeting.对下次会议的日期他们达成了一致意见。 ②At last,the plan was agreed on. 最后,这项计划通过了。

③I don’t agree with you to this arrangement, but perhaps, after a discussion we will agree on this project.我不赞同你在这件事的安排,但或许在协商之后我们可以就这个工程达成共识。

(2)agree to 同意;赞成。to 为介词,后接表示“建议;办法;计划”等名词。

①Do you agree to my plan?你同意我的计划吗? ②The headmaster has agreed to our suggestion for the holiday.校长同意了我们度假的建议。 (3)agree with同意;赞成。后接sb. 或what 从句。 I agree with you ,but I don’t agree with what he said.我同意你的意见,但我不同意他所说的。另外,agree with还有“与„„相适应/相一致”的意思。 The climate here doesn’t agree with me .我不适应这里的气候。

(4)agree to do sth.同意、答应做某事。

Do you agree to go with us if we agree to lend you some money?如果我们答应借钱给你,你同意和我们一起去吗? ahead短语归纳

go ahead朝前走,请便(同意对方继续干或同意对方的请求);go ahead (on)with„继续;ahead of在„„前面,早于,优先;ahead of time提前 [应用]完成句子

①他朝前走去看看发生了什么事情。He ________ ________ to see what had happened.

②我可以坐这个座位吗?请坐吧。May I take this seat?________ _______.

③汤姆的数学比玛丽好。Tom is ________ _______ Mary in maths.

④她比我早到2个小时。She arrived two hours _______ _______me.

⑤他们已提前三周完成了设计。They have completed the design _______ ______ _______ _______time.

Key:①went,ahead ②Go,ahead③/ ④ahead,of⑤three,weeks,ahead,of

alive,living,live,lively,lovely区别 1)lovely意“可爱的”,“美好的”如:a lovely day 美好的一天 a lovely girl 可爱的女孩 2)alive 意为“活着的、有活力的”,是表语形容词,可修饰人、物;

在句中做表语宾补和或后置定词,不能用作前置定语。如

He was alive when he was taken to the hospital.他被送往医院时还活着。

Although he is old, he is still very much alive.虽然年老了,但他仍十分活跃。

The fish is still alive/living.那条鱼还活着。

Keep him alive, please.请让他活下去吧。

He is the only man alive in the accident.他是事故中惟一活着的人。

After the war , he remained alive .战后他还活着。 Those alive will gather here. 活着的人将在此相聚。 3)living 意为“活着的、有生命的”,主要用于作前置定语及冠词the 之后表示一类人,也可用作表语,可修饰人或物。如: a living plant 活的植物

The living will go on with the work of the dead.活着的人将继续死者的工作。

all living things所有生物 the living 在世者,活着的人们

Latin is not a living language. 拉丁语不是现代使用的语言。

He is still living at the age of 95.95岁了他还活着。 4)live [laiv] (1)(动、植物)“活的”,“有生命的”,“活生生的,主要用来说鸟或其它动物,作前置定语;如:a live fish一条活鱼 a live tiger 一只活老虎

(2)实况的,现场直播的;如:a live report现场报道a live show/broadcast/TV program现场转播的表演/实况广播/现场直播的电视节目

living有精神的,活泼的,快活的,轻快的

Her grandfather is still living at the age of 93.她爷爷已经93岁了,仍然健在。 5)lively 意为“活泼的”,“有生气的”, 生动的 “生动的”,可用作表语、定语,指人或物。如: a lively child 活泼的孩子

a lively deion 生动的描述如:

a lively mind 活跃的头脑 a lively discussion 热烈的讨论

a way of making one’s classes lively 使课堂生动的方法

He told a lively story about his life in Africa. 他讲述了一个有关他的非洲生活的一个生动故事。

Young children are usually lively. 年轻人通常很活泼。

all the same adj.都一样;无所谓(to+n.)

①You can stay or leave now;It’s all the same to me. ②It’s all the same to me whether we’ll go there today or tomorrow. adv.仍然,还是

Thank you all the same.

all the year round 全年,一年到头

In the west coast of Canada,it rains all the year round. allow与permit 1)用法相同 allow / permit sb .to do sth .允许某人做某事

allow / permit doing sth . 允许做某事。此时动词只用ing 形式。

反义词forbid 具有同样用法。 2)意义有异同

许多情况下可换用,只是词意的强弱上有差异。allow语意较弱,含有“听任”,“默许”,“不加阻止”的意思;permit 语意较强,强调“正式认可”,“批准”的意思。如:

The nurse allowed him to remain there ,though it was not permitted.

护士让他留在那里,虽然这时(规定)不允许的。 amaze vt.使„„惊奇 = astonish, surprise

The news amazed us greatly.这条消息使我们感到很惊奇。 拓展:(1)amazed人对„„感到吃惊的;amazing(某物)„„信人吃惊的。

They were all amazed at the amazing news. 听到这个令人吃惊的消息他们感到惊讶。 (2)amazement n.

to one’s amazement令人吃惊的是

To my amazement, they have gone to Xishuangbanna. 让我奇怪的是,他们去西双版纳了。 类似短语:to one’s happiness/excitement/sadness/puzzlement 使某人高兴的/兴奋的/伤心的/迷惑的是

and so on : etc 等等。用来表示列举,但又不一一列出。

He knows five foreign languages, English, French, Japanese and so on.他懂5种外语,如英语、法语、日语等等。

announce, explain, introduce, declare后面不接双宾语,若以人作宾语常置于to后。如:

The president announced to the workers the sad news.

The president announced the sad news to the workers.总裁向工人宣布了那不幸的消息。

He introduced the new comer to everyone here.他把新来的那个人介绍给这里的每个人。

report to sb.向某人汇报:report sth/sb.to sb.向某人汇报/告诉。 [应用]单句改错

①The teacher explained his students how to use the computer.

②No one declared us we could not smoke here. Key:①explain后加to ②declare后加to

another day/the other day/some day/one day

another day 可表示近期将来的某一天,意为“改天”,也可表示过去将来某一动作或状态延续的“又一天”。如:

She is coming another day instead of today. 她今天不来,改天来。

You may do it another day. 你可以改天做这件事。

He stayed there (for) another day/another two days after I lift.

我离开后他在那又待了一天/两天。

the other day 相当于a few days ago,意为“几天前、某天、那天、不久前”,句中用一般过去时。如: I met her in the street the other day.几天前我在街上碰见过她。

I bought the watch the other day.这手表我是几天前买的。

some day指将来“总有一天、有朝一日、终将、(日后)某一天”,谓语动词用一般将来时.如:

Your wishes will come true some day.总有一天你的愿望会实现的。

Some day you‘ll have to pay for what you have done. 总有一天你要为你的行为而付出代价的。 one day可以表示“(过去)某一天”,谓语动词常用一般过去式;也可表示“(将来)某一天”,这时可与some day互相代替,谓语常用一般将来时。如:

One day I went to see my first teacher ,but he happened to be out.有一天,我去看我的启蒙老师,可碰巧他出去了。

He will understand the teacher one day/some day.将来有一天,他会理解老师的。 anxious, eager

两个词均有“渴望,急于”之意。anxious 着重指焦急、着急或担心;而eager着重指对成功的期望或进取的热情。两者都多用作表语,其主语通常是人,不能以无生命的事物作主语。对比: He is eager to join the army.他渴望参军。

He is anxious to know whether he has been chosen. 他急于知道是否被选上了。 常用搭配:

①be anxious to do sth.渴望急切地做某事;be anxious for渴望(了解、得到);

be anxious about担心,对„„感到不安 ②be eager to do sth.急切地想做某事; be eager for (about, after)渴望,渴求, be eager for your help渴望得到你的帮助; be eager about peace渴望和平 ①学生们都急切地想知道考试结果。

The students ________ ________ ________ ________ the results ofthe examination.

②那个小男孩渴望得到一台新录音机。The little boy was ________ ________a new recorder.

③我很担心我儿子的健康。I’m ________ ________my son’s health.

④他殷切希望女儿的成功。He is __________ _________ his daughter’s success.

Key:①are, anxious(eager),to ,know②anxious(eager),for③anxious, about④eager, for(about, after) apologize for doing sth.

apologize是不及物动词,意为“道歉”,其表达式为“apologize to sb.for sth.”。如:

You must apologize to your sister for being so rude.它的名词形式是apology, 复数形式是apologizes. make one’s apologies to sb. for sth.= make an apology to sb. for sth.如:

He make his apologies to me for coming late. appear

As a result, it appered to scientists on earth that the stars had moved.因此,地球上的科学家看来,恒星好像是移动了。

句型:It appears/seems(to sb.) +that—clause.看来/似乎是„„

①It appears to me that something is wrong.我看好像有点不大对头。

②It appears that he will the prize.看来他会得笑。 appear;seem;look

appear, seem, look都有“看起来似„„”之意,但其暗含意思和用法又各有不同。 从意义上讲:

(1)appear强调外表给人的印象,有时含实质上并非如此的意思,如:

He appears to know more than he really does。他看起来好像懂得很多。(其实懂得没有那么多)

(2)seem暗示有一定根据的判断,这种判断往往接近事实,如:

His health seems to be better.他的健康状况似乎有所好转。

(3)look着重由视觉得出的印象,如:

He doesn’t look his age.他看起来比实际年龄年轻(或老成)。 从用法上讲:

seem和appear后可加

(to + be)+表语(adj.或n.或prep.) +to v.

It + ~ +(that)从句如:

He seems/appears(to be)very sad today.=It seems that he is very sad today.

It seems like years since I saw you last time.

He seems a kind doctor.(=It seems that he is a kind doctor.)

He seems/appears to have caught a cold.=It seems/appears that he has caught a cold.

look当“看起来似乎„和as if从句。如: He looks strong.

She looks like her mother.

It looks as if we are going to miss the train.„”讲时,可接形容词、过去分词、名词、介词短语 area; district

(1)area表示“地区、区域”,是普通用词,暗示一个较大的,可能是没有清楚界限的地区,不能用来指行政上的地理单位。如:

The old man lives in a mountain area.这位老人生活在山东。

This is a less developed area.这是个欠发达地区。 Most of the large land areas are connected.多数大块陆地是相连的。

(2)district表示“区、地区、区域”,指为行政管理或选举之目的所分的区。在同一城市,各种性质不同的区域也叫district。如:

Where is the District of Columbia?哥伦比亚特区在什么地方?

The old man used to work in the jin-Cha-Ji Military District.那位老人曾经在晋察冀军区工作。

The northeast part of the city is the residential district.这城市的东北部是住宅区。 Arm

take…in one‘s arms 该结构意为“拥抱”。如:

He went into classroom, taking some books in his arms.

As a child„.:As/When he was a child„,小的时候,该句型中的as为连词,意为“在„„的时候”,引导时间状语从句。当从句与主句主语一致,且从句谓语为be时,可将从句主语及be省略。

①Even as(he was)a student,Professor Smith showed great interest in maths.甚至上学的时候,史密斯教授对数学就很感兴趣。

②As(he was)a boy,he liked playing table tennis with the grown-ups.小时候,他就喜欢和大人们打乒乓球。as a result 作为结果,结果(发生某情况),可置于句首,也可置于句末

She got up very early. As a result, she was able to catch the early bus.她起得很早,因此她赶上了早班车。

He has won the game. He is in high spirits as a result. 他赢了比赛,所以他精神高昂。

He runs every day .As a result , he has lost weight .他每天跑步,结果他减肥了。

as a result of 作为„„的结果,as a result of„„的结果是

As a result of exercise , he has built up his health. The flight was delayed as a result of typhoon.该次班机因台风而延误

result in = lead to 导致,造成„„结果,如:

Hard work results in success.努力终归成功。(= Success results from hard work.成功来自努力) Hard work results in success. 勤奋才会成功。 result from 由„„产生的结果,如:

Success results from hard work. 成功来自勤奋。 His illness resulted from overwork. 他的病起因于操劳过渡。 as…as

as many as 和„„一样多/多达;as much as 和„„一样多/多达(注意:many指可数的量,much 指不可数词的量);as high as 和„„一样高/高达;as thick as 和„„一样厚/厚达;as long as 一样长/长达;as deep as 一样深/深达;as early as 一样早/早在„„时候,如:

We have as many books as they.我们的书和他们的一样多。/The great fire burned down as many as twenty buildings.大火烧毁的大楼多达20座。 [应用]汉译英

①新桥与旧桥一样长。/这种鱼可长到长达15英尺。 ②这座山和远处的另一座一样高。/这座山高达4000米。

Key:①The new bridge is as long as the old one./The kind of fish can grow as long as 15 feet.

②This mountain is as high as another one in the distance./This mountain is as high as 4,000 metres. as„as possible:as„as one can尽可能地„„.

①I’ll come back as soon as possible.我尽可能地„„

②Get up as early as possible tomorrow morning. 明天早晨尽量早起。 as...as...用法小结

(1)...as+形容词(副词)原级+as...;not as/so+形容词(副词)原级+as...

Their factory is as large as ours.他们的工厂和我们的一样大。

I study as hard as you.我和你一样用功学习。

He doesn’t get up as/ so early as his parents.他不像

他父母那样早起床。

(2)„„倍数 + as + 形容词(副词)原级+as... Line AB is 3 times as long as Line CD.=Line AB is twice longer than/3 times the length of Line CD.线段AB是线段CD长的3倍。

(3)as + 形容词 + a/an + 单数可数名词 + as; as + 形容词+复数名词 + as

She is as good many records as possible.我们需要尽量多的唱片。

There is as much sugar in it as eight pieces of sugar.其中的含糖量相当于八块方糖。 I have’t got as much money as I thought.我没有原来想象的那么多钱。

(5)as much/ many as多达„„,„„那么多 On Sports Day, during the relay race, you will use most of all, perhaps as much as 650 calories an hour.在运动会上,进行接力赛跑时,你消耗的能量最多,可能每小时多达650卡。

As many as 700 different languages are spoken in Africa.非洲有多达700种不同的语言。

He didn’t catch as many as he’d hoped.他没有捉住预想的那么多。

(6)as...as possible; as... as one can

The teacher should write the words on the blackboard as carefully as he can. =The teacher should write the words on the blackboard as carefully as possible.老师在黑板上应尽可能仔细地把字写好。

Please be as friendly as possible to your friends.=Please be as friendly as you can.请对你的朋友尽可能友好。

(7)as...as + 年代数字/名词

As early as 1950 I knew him.早在1950 年我就认识他了。

He walked as far as the post office.他步行到邮局。 (8)as/so far as I know

As/ So for as I know, he will be away from home for 3 months.就我所知,他将要离家3个月。 (9)as soon as—„„就„„

Please let us know as soon as you arrive in Bejing.一到北京,请通知我们一声。 (10)as well as 和;也;还有

He gave me money as well as advice.他除了给我忠告外,还给我钱。

He studies French as well as English.他不但学习英语,而且学习法语。

(11)as/so long as 只要;如果

You may use that dictionary as long as you take care of it.只要你好好保存,你可以用那本词典。 as a matter of fact=in fact事实上、实际上„„

It seems easy,but as a matter of fact,it‘ll take us a long time to work it out.

这道题貌似简单,实际上要解出的话很费时间。 区别下列用法

1)as(so)far as 和„„一样远,远至(原级比较或表示距离);就„„来讲

2)as(so)long as 和„„一样长(原级比较);只要(引导条件 状语从句)

3)as well as和„„一样好;既„„也„„(连接并列成分)

4)as good as和„„一样好;事实上(作状语) [应用]完成句子

①他们实际上已经答应帮助我们了。They have ________ _______ ______ promised to help us.

②油漆后的这辆自行车和新的一样。Painted, this bike is _______ _____ ______ a new one.

③小李英语说得和汉语一样好。Xiao Li speaks English______ ______ _____ she speaks Chinese. ④他和他的父母对我都很好。He _______ ______ ______his parents is kind to me.

⑤晚饭后我们一直到走山脚下。After supper we walked______ _____ ______the foot of the hill.

⑥就我所知,他将离开两个月。______ ______ ______I know, he’ll be away for two months.

⑦只要努力,你一定会成功。________ ________ _______you work hard, you’ll succeed in time. ⑧这座新建的桥据说和旧的一样长。This newly – built bridge is said to be _____ ____ ___the old one.

Key:①②as good as;③④as well as ⑤as far as ⑥As, far,as ⑦As/so,long,as ⑧as,long,as

as if可用as though替换,在此引导表语从句,另外它们也可引导状语从句,从句既可用陈述语气,也可用虚拟语气。如:

①It looks as if /though it’s going to rain.(陈述语气)

②You look as if you’d seen a ghost.(虚拟语气) as is the case with = as with „„就和„„的情况一样

As is the case with his mother, he is fond of music. 跟母亲一样,他喜欢音乐。

As with human, animals also love their babies. 同人一样,动物也爱它们的幼仔。 as good as

as good as 作为固定词组意为“几乎一样”,“实际

上等于”,作为同级比较结构,意为“和„„一样好”。如:

①He is as good at English as me.②My bike is as good as yours. „as it is

该固定词组表达意思是“就以(现在)这个样子,”“根据现在的情况”。

如:He decided to buy the house as it is. as long as/so long as只要 (1)引导条件状语从句

You may borrow the book as / so long as you keep it clean. 只要你不把书弄脏,你就可以借。

You will succeed so long as you work hard. 只要你努力就会成功。

As long as you study hard, you’ll make great progress. 只要你努力学习,你就会取得很大进步。 (2)和„„一样长

This rope is as long as that one.这条绳子和那条一样长。

This bridge isn’t so/as long as that one.这座桥和那座不一样长。

(3)长达„„(表时间)

The old couple have been living in the small town as long as 50 years.

这对老夫妇已在这个小城镇里住了长达50年。 as well/ as well as as well 表示“也”,是副词短语,用作状语,通常放在句末,也可放在主语之后,相当于too,但一般无标点符号与句子隔开.as well as 通常看作一个复合并列连词,连接两个成分相同的词、短语或句子,表示“既„„又„„,不但„„而且„„”当它连接两个主语时,谓语动词的人称和数要与第一个主语保持一致。如:

The children learn to read, write and they play games as well.孩子们学习读书写字,他们也做游戏。 With television,we can see a picture as well as hear sound.利用电视,我们既能听到声音,又能看到图像. Tom,as well as his parents,likes pop music.汤姆以及他的父母都喜欢流行音乐。 as;which引导定语从句异同

as, which 都能引导限制性或非限制性的定语从句。 (1)在引导限制性定语从句时;

①which从句修饰的先行词是名词(词组),which可与that换用,作宾语时可省去。如:

Then grow some tomatoes in one box which has plant food in the soil and some in another box which doesn‘t.

But the studios(which)he started are still busy today, producing more and more interesting films.

②as从句的先行词是the same/such或被the same/such修饰;as可作主、宾、表语,一律不可省略。如:Many of the sports were the same as they are now.(as作表语)

He uses the same map as I (use).他和我用的是同一份地图。(as作宾语)

Such as beautiful park as is being built was designed by two young engineers.正在建造的如此漂亮的公园是由两个年轻的工程师设计的。(as作主语) The printed newspaper was not such as the chief editor had expected. 印好的报纸并非如主编原来所期望的那样。(as作宾语) (2)在引导非限制性定语从句时,as,which都可作主、宾、表语,都不可省去。

①which从句补充说明先行词的用途、性质、状态、特征等。如:

At present,the biggest nature park for milu deer in China is in the Nanhaizi Milu Park,which is about 20 kilometres south of Beijing.(位置)

China Daily has plenty of advertisements, which help to cut

the costs of making the newspaper.(用途)

One of Charile Chaplin’s most famous films was“The Gold Rush”,which was made in 1925.(时间) Now, however,the maters of this great lake,which is also the

World‘s deepest(over 1,740 metres),have been dirtied by waste

from a chemical factory.(特征)

②which从句还可表示说话人的看法,也可对主句作意义上的补充;which=and it/ this/ that/ they;which代表的是先行词、主句或主句的一部分;which从句只能放在先行词或主句后。如:

He said she could speak 4 foreign languages, which(=and it)is not true.他说她会四门外语,这是不可能的。(说话人看法,which代表宾语从句部分)

比较:He said she could speak 4 foreign languages, which(=and that)surprised every one of us.他说她会四门外语,这使我们每个人都很惊讶。(补充主句,which 代表主句)

Leaves are turning yellow, which means autumn is coming. 树叶正在变黄,这意味着秋天就要来了。 ③as也可代表先行词、主句或主句一部分。但as有“正如”的意义,其从句可放在主句前或后,如: The Nanjing Changjiang River Bridge,as we all know, was compl-

eted in 1969.我们都知道南京长江大桥,它建成于一九六九年。(as代表先行词)

To shut your eyes to facts, as many of you do, is foolish.(如)你们许多人(所做的那样)对事实视而不见是愚蠢的。(as代表主语部分)

As we know, the earth is round. 我们知道,地球是圆的。

ask for 要求,请求

ask sb.for sth.向(某人)请求(要求)„„

She asked for some advice on how to learn English well.

at表示速度、价格、利率

at a high/low price以高价/;低价;at 40 miles an hour 以每小时40英里的速度;at a high/low speed以高速/慢速;at an ordinary speed 以普通速度;at full/top speed以全速/高速;at a speed of 以„„速度。

[应用]完成句子

①公司决定以较低的价格将这批电视卖掉。

The company decided to sell the TV sets _ __ _ __ __ _ 。

②火车正以每小时150英里的速度前进。

The train was running ______ _____ ______ _______150 miles an hour .

Key:①at, a, low, price②at,a, speed,of “at+名词”表示“在进行,从事” at work 在工作;at table在吃饭;at play 在做游戏;at sea 出海;at university/college在上学;at night school在上夜校;at dinner/table在吃饭;at peace处于和平状态;at war在交战,在打仗 [应用]完成句子。

①别人在工作,不要吵闹。Don’t make any noise while others are ______ ________.

②孩子们在游戏,而他们的父母正在吃饭。

The children were ______ ________ while their parents were_______ _______. Key:①at, work②at,play,at,dinner at last, in the end, finally

三者均有“最后、终于”的含义。 finally常用于动词之前,表示人们长期以来期待的某事最后实现了,也可指一系列事物或论点的顺序。例如:

After putting it off three times,we finally managed to have a holiday in Greece.经过三次延期之后,我们终于在希腊度了一次假。

They talked about it for hours.Finally,they decided not to go.他们谈论了几个小时,最后决定不去。 at last 有时可与finally互换,但往往用于一番拖延或曲折之后,语气更强烈。例如:

When at last they found him, he was almost dead.当人们最终找到他时,他已经奄奄一息了。

James has passed his exams at last.詹姆斯终于通过了考试。

in the end指经过许多变化、困难的捉摸不定的情况之后,某事才发生。例如:

We made five different plans for our holiday, but in the end we had a summer camp again.我们制订了五种不同的度假方案,但最后我们还是选定了再来一次夏令营活动。

at (the) least 至少;最少。反义词组为at (the)most至多;最多。

—Mr Smith looks older than his real age.In fact,he is at (the)most 40 years old.史密斯先生很显老,实际上他最多40岁。

—Oh, really?I thought he was 50 years old at (the)least.噢,真的吗?我以为他至少50岁了。 at the beginning of 在„„初(开头),可指时间与空间。如:

at the beginning of term 在学期开始

at the beginning of the book 在那本书的开头

at the beginning 单独用时间at first,也可说in the beginning.

比较:at the end of 在„„末(尽头) at the end 在末尾处

in the end 最终,同at last in the middle of 在„„中期

from beginning to end 从头至尾 at the doctor‘s

该结构为介词+名词所有格,意为“在诊所”。所有格-’s后一般接名词,如her mother’s bike ,但有时这个名词可省略,主要表现在以下两个方面: ①指一个企业,机构,教堂,学校,医院,家庭,理发店,店铺时。如: She is at the hairdresser‘s.

②为了避免重复,省略-’s后的名词。如:

I have read some of Shaw‘s plays,but none of Shakespeare‘s.

at the last moment在最后关头 at the moment 此刻;正在那时 for a moment片刻;一会儿for the moment 目前,暂时in a moment立刻,马上

at the top of在„„的顶部,上方 at the top of a mountain在山顶

She is (at)the top of her class in French. at the top of one’s voice高声地,尖声地 at war

该介宾词组意思是“处于战争或交战状态”。在句中常作表语。如:

The U.S.A.and Iraq are at war again. at, with, through表原因 三个介词都可表示原因,at表示听到或看到的原因;(2)vt.尝试;企图。

①She attempted to learn Japanese.她试图学习日语。 ②The prisoner attempted an escape.那犯人企图逃走。

12.keep out of = keep sth.(sb.)out of不使入内;不牵with表示人体外部的原因;through 强调自身的原因。如:be sad at the news听了这个消息而悲伤;be frightened at the sight看了那个情景而害怕;jump up with joy高兴地跳了起来;turn red with anger气得脸红;shake with cold/fear冻得/害怕得发抖;with pleasure高兴地;with pride 骄傲地;with satisfaction满意地;make the mistake through his carelessness由于粗心而出错;be put into prison through no fault of his own 没有任何罪过被关进监狱。

[应用]汉译英

①听到这个消息,全国人民处于悲哀之中。 ②孩子们高兴地跳了起来。 ③由于大意他犯了这个错误。

Key:①At the news, the whole country was in deep sorrow.

②The children jumped up with joy.

③He made the mistake through his carelessness. at work; out of work; after work

这三个以work为中心词的介词短语,在意思和用法上均不相同。 (1)at work表示“在工作、在上班”,作表语或状语。例如:

They are both at work today.今天他们俩都在上班。 His father had an accident at work last week.上周的父亲在工作时出了事故。 (2)out of work表示“失业”,是介词短语,相当于lost one’s job或be unemployed。例如:

If you don’t work hard, you’ll be out of work.如果你不好好工作就会失业。

You’ll be out of work if you keep coming late.如果你老是迟到,你会失业的。 (3)after work表示“下班后”,作时间状语。例如: What do you usually do after work?下班后你经常干什么?

I visited Mr Liu after work yesterday.昨天下班后我看望过刘先生。 attempt

(1)n.尝试;企图。

①He made an attempt to learn to ski.他尝试着学滑雪。

②He failed in attempt at climbing up the mountain.他企图爬上这座山,却失败了。 涉进去。

①Warm clothing will keep the cold out.保暖的衣服可御寒。

②Keep out of their quarrels.不要参与他们争吵。 attention 短语

pay attention to sth. 注意某事

draw one’s attention(to sth.) 引起某人的注意 be worth one’s attention 值得某人注意

bring one’s attention to sth. 叫某人注意某事 average短语归纳

average 可用作名词,表示“平均数,一般水平”,也可作形容词,表示“平均的”。如:

the average of the pay 平均工资;above/below the average 平均以上/以下;

the average age of the girls姑娘的平均年龄; the average temperature平均气温; on(an,the)average平均起来 [应用]完成句子

①这个厂的工人平均每月收入700元。____ ______,one worker in this factory gets 700 yuan every month.

②他的功课一般以上。He is_________ _________ in his lessons.

Key: ①On, average ②above, average awake,wake

①awake用作及物或不及物动词,表示“叫醒,唤醒;醒来”;而wake表示相同意义时,必须与up连用,对比:

The noise awoke me./The noise woke me up. 嗓音把我闹醒。

She usually awakes at six in the morning./She usually wakes up at six in the morning.她通常早上6点醒。 注意:awake 不与up连用;wake up 的宾语是人称代词时必须置于两个词之间。误:wake up him正:wake him up

②awake 还可用作形容词,只用作表语或后置定语,不能用作前置定语。其反义词是 asleep.如: Is he awake or asleep?他睡着了还是醒着?

Anyone awake heard the sound.任何醒着的人都听到了那个声音。 注意:wide/fully awake 完全醒着;sound/fast/deeply asleep熟睡 [应用]完成句子

①他醒来时,他母亲在他的旁边。When he_______,his mother was beside him. ②我彻夜未眠,一直在考虑这个问题。I have lain_______all night thinking of the problem. ③他突然醒了,好象有人叫他的名字。He ______ _______suddenly,as if someone had called his name. ④她睡着的时候谁也叫不醒他。No one can_______ _______ ________when she is asleep. Key:①awoke ②awake ③woke up ④wake,her,up battle, war, fight, struggle war指战争的总体;battle指war中的战斗或战役;fight指具体的人与人之间或动物之间的争斗;struggle指长时间、激烈的争斗,多指肉体、精神上的战斗。对比: We have had two world wars in this century.本世纪已有两次世界大战。 They were wounded in the battle.他们在战斗中受了伤。 We have started a fight against pollution. 我们已开始了一场消除污染的斗争。 His life was a hard struggle with sickness.他一生跟疾病作了艰苦的斗争。 [应用]英译汉 ①in time of war ②be at war ③declare war on„④fight a battle ⑤give/offer battle ⑥have a hand-to-hand fight Key:①战时②交战,在打仗 ③对„„宣战④打一仗挑战 ⑤肉搏战 伴随状语可用现在分词也可用过去分词 He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. 本句有三个并列谓语,looking 部分为伴随状语。 例题 1)He held up his finger ,_______ a face and nodded his head.A.making B. made 答案:B.此题有and ,需连接并列结构,所填词的形式应与前后保持一致。 2) He sat there in silence, _______sad and doing nothing.A. looking B. looked 答案:A.此题and 之后ing形式,其前面也应该用ing形式,而不能与前面的sat并列。 3)He sat there in silence ,______ nothing.A.doing B.did 答案:A.此题才是在逗号之后,需要伴随状误。 4)He set out early, ________ there on time .A.arriving B. and arrived 答案:B.此题两种选项从形式看都有可能,但根据意思看,“到达”并不伴随“出发”的动作,而是明显地有先有后。 5)He made a smile, _____ with the result. A. satisfying B. satisfied 答案:B.伴随状语可用现在分词也可用过去分词,此处表示“感到满意”的一种状态,而satisfying表示令人满意的,此时的satisfied是过去分词,而不是过去式。 be about to do sth. 正要、即将做某事。是将来时的一种表达方式,表示最近的将来。 ①I was about to go to bed when he called.我正要去睡觉,这时他打来了电话。 ②When I saw Tom, he was about to get on the bus.我看到汤姆,他正要上汽车。 注意:be about to 通常不用于带有具体时间状语的句子,但可用be going to 表示。 ①Hurry up! They are about to start.快点!他们就要走了。 ②Hurry up! They are going to start at 10 o’clock.快点!10点钟他们就要走了。 be ahead of 该词组有两层意思,一是“优于”,“超过”;二是“比„„早”,“在„„的前面”。如: He is well ahead of all the other students in English. be angry with sb.生某人的气。 be angry at/about sth.因某事而生气。 ①Don’t be angry with me for my being late?不要因为我迟到而生我的气。 ②What are you angry about?你生什么气? ③He was angry at being kept waiting for so long.让他等了这么久,他很生气。 be certain…; be sure be uncertain about意思是“对„„不确定(没把握)” uncertain的词根是certain,意思是“确信的,有把握的”,常用于以下结构: (1)be certain(sure) to do sth.“肯定会做„„”(表示某事将要发生)。如: He is certain(sure) to come next Sunday. (2)be certain(sure) of/ about sth.“确信、有把握”(表示某个人的思想状态)。如: We are certain/ sure of victory. (3) 名词从句作主语时,一般多用 certain. It is certain that he will come. be different from与„„不同 Your idea is different from mine. 你的想法和我的不同。

对比:make sb./ sth. different from使某人/某物不同于„„

Her special accent makes her different from others. 她特殊的口音使她与众不同。 be familiar with,be familiar to

be familiar with的主语是有生命的事,意为“某人对人、事熟悉”;be familiar to 的主语是无生命的事物,意为“某人/事为某人所熟悉”,对比:He is very familiar with the names of plants in English.他很熟悉植物的英语名称。Suzhou and Hangzhou are familiar to many foreigners.苏州和杭州为许多外国人所熟悉。

I’m not familiar with European history./European history is not familiar to me.我对欧洲历史不太熟悉。 注意:be familiar with/to 还表示“精通、通晓” 如:French is as familiar to him as English.他对法语就象对英语一样精通。

[应用] 一句多译①这些事实是每个学生都熟悉的。②她精通4种语言。

Key:①These facts are familiar to every schoolboy./Every shoolboy is familiar with these facts.

②She is familiar with four languages./Four languages are familiar to her.

be filled with = be full of 充满,装满如:

The bottle is filled with water .瓶子里装满了水。 注意:Filled with courage , he went into the cave .此处filled 表示“充满了的”指处于一种状态。 比较:be crowded with 挤满的,与be filled with 有所不同。如:

The room is crowded with guests.房间里挤满了客人。 此外,fill作为动词可用其主动形式,亦可构成另外短语。如:

Fill the bottle with sand .把瓶子装满沙子。 Fill in the blanks .填空。

be full of„→be filled with„充满„

①The classroom was full of students.教室里挤满了学生。

②Her eyes were full of tears.她眼泪汪汪的。

be likely to 易于„„;有可能的. 后跟动词不定式,往往用在一时的情形。

I shall be likely to catch cold if I go out tonight without my overcoat.如果今晚不穿大衣出去,我会感冒的。

Is that magazine likely to interest you? 那本杂志对你有吸引力吗? be of„结构小结 (1)be of + 表示年龄(age)、大小(size)、颜色(color)、重量(weight)、高度(height)、价格(price)、意

见(opinion)、形状(shape)、种类(kind)和方法(way)等名词,说明主语的特征,of表示“具有”之意,有时可省去。例如:

They are both of middle height.他俩都是中等个儿。 When I was of your age, I was a teacher.当我是你这个年龄时,我当老师了。

These flowers are of different colors.这些花朵颜色不同。

Tom is of a different way of thinking.汤姆的思维方式与别人不同。

注意:此结构中,如果of后面的名词前有不定冠词a/an,则a/an=the same.例如:

The two boys are of an/the same age.这两个男孩同龄。

These bottles are of a/the same size.这些瓶子大小一样。

(2)be of + 物质名词,表示主语是由某材料制成或某成分构成,相当于be made of, be built of或be made up of等。例如:

The necklace is(made)of glass.这项链是玻璃制的。 The bridge is (built)of stone.这桥是由石头构筑的。 Our class is (made up)of over 50 students. 我班有50多个学生。

(3)be of + 抽象名词(如value, importance,use, help等),of表示“具有、具备”等意思,of不能省,这一结构相当于be+该抽象名词相应的形容词。例如:

They are of great help/ very helpful to learners of English.他们对英语学习者来说是很有帮助的。 In fact, sports and games can be of great value/very valuable.事实上体育运动是很有价值的。

The book is of no use/useless to us.这书对我们无用。It is of great importance/very important to study English.学习英语很重要。

因此,根据上述(1),(2)点可以看出,课文句中第一个be of 结构表示“具有”,第二个be of(承前省去be)表示“由„„制成的”。全句汉语意思为:“硬币的大小、重量、形状可能各不相同,并由不同的金属制成。” be on

on 表明所处的状态,意为“为„工作,在„„服务”可用be a member of, work for, belong to 替换。 I’m on the school team.我属于校队。

She is on Times newspaper.她在时代报社工作。 [应用]完成句子,上下句同意

①Which team do you belong to ?Which team______you_____?

②She is a member of the city team.She______ ______ the city team. Key: ①are,on ②is, on be out; put out be out 指“(灯、火)熄灭”,强调状态。 put out 意为“熄灭、扑灭”,强调动作。如: Is the fire out ?

Office workers tried to put out the fire, but it was impossible to control it.

be remembered as„作为„„而被人们怀念 He will always be remembered as a national hero. be seated 意为“坐下”(=sit down),是正式用语,而sit down是非正式用语。

如:Please be seated, ladies and gentlemen. be up to

to是介词,后接名词、代词或动名词。这一短语有以下几个常用意思:

(1)从事于、忙于,有时含有“密谋干坏事”之意。如:

What is he up to now?他现在在干什么? He is up to no good.他没干好事。

(2)由„„负责,常用It作主语。如:

It’s up to you to decide whether to go or not.是去还是不去由你决定。

It’s up to us to give them all the help we can.我们理应尽力帮助他们。

(3)胜任、适于。如:

He is not up to his work.他不胜任他的工作。 (4)直到、以至。如: up to now 直到现在

Between the hours of midnight and 6 a.m.,the hurricane crossed the southeast corner of England with winds of up to 160km/h.从午夜时分到清晨6点之间,飓风横扫英格兰的东南角,风速高达每小时160公里。 because;because of 二者均表示“因为”,区别是:

because是从属连词引导原因状语从句;而because of是一个合成介词,其后接名词、代词、动名词或what从句组成介词短语。如:

I went back not because of the rain,but because I was tired.我回去不是因为下雨,而是因为我累了。 Her face turned red because of what he said.他的话使她脸红了。

become experienced at对„„有经验 experienced adj.有经验的,老练的 be experienced in He‘s very experienced in money matters. experience n.经验,体验(in(of)/doing)

My father has ten year‘s experience in teaching.

beeline n.两地之间的直线;捷径(指蜜蜂采蜜后径直飞向蜂房,这条路叫beeline)

(1)make a beeline for sb./sp.走近路;走直路;向„„直行

As soon as the meeting was over, he made a beeline for the pub.会议一结束,他就直接上了酒吧。 If you want to catch up with them, you‘d better make a beeline for them.

如果你想赶上他们,你最好抄近路去。 (2)in a beeline 成直线地,笔直地

The pupils went to the museum in a beeline. 孩子们直接走向博物馆。

believe in(=trust/trust in)信赖;信任;信仰 Tom is honest. I believe in him. 汤姆很诚实,我信赖他。

He doesn’t believe in anybody in the world. 在这个世界上,他不相信任何人。

We believe in socialism. 我们信仰社会主义。 ①We believe in Marxism. ②You can believe in him.

③We believe in our government.

对比:believe sb.相信某人的话是真的。

I believe what he said this time though he often tells lies.尽管他经常撒谎,可这次我相信他的话是真的。 belong to属于 无被动结构,也不用进行时态。下列单词和词组也无被动形式:appear, disappear, happen, take place, break out等。

The house belongs to him.这所房子归他所有。The book belongs to my deskmate.这本书是我同位的。 besides

作为副词,意思是“还有,而且”(moreover),常放在句首。如:

I don ‗t want to go out for a walk. Besides, I‘m feeling tired. beyond,prep.

(场所)在(向)„„的一边,越过„„,(程度)超出;(时间),超过(Δ常用于否定句);除„„之外,„„以外。

①Go about 200 metres beyond the house and you will find the hotel on the left.

②I want to buy a bag beyond these clothes. blow

①用作动词,表示“吹风,刮风”。如:

blow hard(strongly)风刮得很大;blow away the

leaves吹走树叶;blow down(over)trees 把树刮倒;blow in much dust吹进灰尘;blow off one’s hat吹掉帽子;blow out the candle吹灭蜡烛;blow open(风吹)开;blow up爆炸 ②用作名词,表示“打击,一击”。如:be a great blow to sb.对某人是个巨大的打击;give sb.a heavy blow on the head重重地打某人的头。 【应用】完成句子

①他妻子之死对他是一大打击。His wife’s death was _______ _________ ________ ______him.

②我那顶帽子被风吹掉了。I _______my hat __________ ___________.

③风刮得厉害,门吹开了。The wind was ________ __________ and the door ________.

④战士们把敌人的大桥炸毁了。The soldiers __________ __________the enemy’s bridge.

Key:①a ,great, blow, to ②had, blown, off③blowing, hard, blew, open ④blew, up block

①用作名词,意为“块;街区;阻塞。”如: a block of ice/stone/wood 一大块冰/石头/木头;two blocks两个街区;a block in traffic/a traffic block交通堵塞。

②用作动词,表示“阻塞,阻拦”。如: be blocked by the heavy snow被大雪堵塞,block the entrance 堵塞入口;Block!(路标)此路不通! 【应用】完成句子

①道路被人群挤得水泄不通。The road_______ _______with crowds of people.

②那家旅馆同这里隔着两条街。The hotel is __________ _________ __________.

③他们用石块将洞口堵住。They ________ (up)the entrance to the cave with big rocks.

④有人在妨碍我们实施计划。Someone is _________our plan.

Key:①was, blocked ②two, blocks,away③blocked ④blocking 倍数的表示法

1)„times as„as“„„是„„的几倍”;

Asia is four times as large as Europe.亚洲的大小是欧洲的4倍。

2)„times +形容词/副词比较级+that:

The new building is four times higher than the old one.新楼比旧楼高4倍。

3)„times+the size/height/length/depth+of„

The earth is 49 times the size of the moon.地球是月亮大小的49倍。

The ball is twice the width of our classroom.舞厅是我们教室宽度的2倍。 4)„times+what从句:

The production now is three times what it was ten years ago.现在的生产是10年前的3倍。 [应用]选择正确答案

①After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced_____tractors in 1988 as the year before.(MET‘90)

A.as twice many B.as many twiceC.twice as many D.twice many as

②The population of China is_____than that of America.

A.larger five times B.five times larger C.five times as D.as five times Key:①C ②B

begin(„)with„从„„开始(„)

①Knowledge begins with practice.知识来自实践。 ②Let’s begin(this unit) with the words and expressions.咱们从单词和短语开始学(这个单元)。 besides/except/but

besides用作介词时,表示“除„„以外还有”之意,即所除去的东西要包括在内。用作副词时,表示“此外,而且”

except表了“除„„之外”所除去的东西不包括在内。

but只能用在no,all,nobody,anything,anywhere等词之后。

如:Besides knowing some Greek,she was fluent in Italian.她除了懂些希腊语之外,意大利语也说得很流利。

Do you play other games besides tennis?除网球之外,你还进行其他的运动吗?

It wasn’t a good hotel;besides,it was very expensive.这不是一家好旅馆,况且房价也很贵。

Harrison had thought of everything except the weather.哈利森什么事情都考虑到了,惟独没有考虑到天气。

Under the soil there is nothing except/but sand.土壤下面只有沙子。

比较级 + and + 比较级

more and more countries 越来越多的国家;fewer and fewer students越来越少的学生;less and less time 越来越少的时间;more and more beautiful越来越漂亮;get thinner and thinner 变得越来越瘦;fly higher and higher 飞得越来越高;run more and more slowly跑得越来越慢,become stronger and stronger 越来越强大; [应用]汉译英

①越来越多的人认识到学好一门外语的重要性。 ②飞机飞得越来越高直到看不见了。 Key:

①More and more people realize the importance of learning a foreigh language well.

②The plane flew higher and higher until it was out of sight.

表示“大约”

about,around,some,or so均可来表示“大约”。前三个词通常放在被修饰成分之前,而or so多置于其后。如:

about one hundred students大约100名学生; at around eight o’cloch在大约八点钟; some twenty years ago 大约二十年前; [应用]一句多用:这件设备重10吨左右。

Key:This piece of equipment weighs some 10 tons. This piece of equipment weighs 10 tons or so. This piece of equipment weighs about (around)10 tons.

表示“决心、决定做”的几个用法 1)decide to do 决定做

We decided to put off the trip to the U.S.我们决定推迟美国之行。

2)make a decision to do :

He has made a decision to buy a new computer.他已决定买一台新电脑。

3)make up one‘s mind to do

The doctor made up his mind to go abroad for further education. 那位医生决定出国深造。 4)determine to do

We have determined to get the work done before National Day.我们已决定国庆节前完成这项工作。 5)be determined to do

He is determined to give up smoking.他决心戒烟。 6)decide that„„(从句中动词用should + 动词原形)

We decided that we should widen the road.我们决定拓宽这条路。

[应用]一句多译:这位年轻科学家决心继续自己的研究。 Key:

The young scientist was determined to go on with his research./He determined to go on with his research./He

decided that he should go on with his research./He made up

his mind to go on with his research./He made a decision to go on with his research./He decided to go on with his research.

表示“宁愿、想要某人做某事” 下列句型均可表示“宁愿、想让某人作某事”:would like sb.to do sth.;would prefer sb.to do sth.;like sb.to do sth;want sb.to do sth.;would rather that sb.did sth. 对比:would like/love to do sth.喜欢、宁愿做某事;prefer to do sth.宁愿做;would rather do sth.宁愿做;would like/love not to do sth.不想做;would rather not do sth.宁愿不做„„;prefer not to do sth.不想做;would rather do sth.than do sth.宁愿做某事而不做某事;p11refer to do sth.rather than do sth.宁愿做某事而不做某事。 [应用]①一句多译

我想让我儿子学医。②选择正确的答案

Little Jim should love_______to the theatre this evening. (MET‘92)

A.to be taken B.to take C.being taken D.taking Key:

I would like my son to study medicine./I‘d love my son to

study medicine,/ I would rather that my son studied medicine./ I like my son to study medicine./I want my son to study medicine./I would rather that my son studied medicine. ②A

表示态度、语气的短语归纳

generally speaking一般说来;strictly speaking严格说来;honestly speaking诚实地说来;personally speaking就我个人而言;exactly speaking准确地说来。to tell you the truth说实话;to be honest老实说;believe it or not信不信由你;judging from his appearance从他的相貌来说 [应用]完成句子 ①严格说来,加拿大英语和美国英语并不完全一样。_____ ____,Canadian English is not just the same as American English.

②老实说我不赞同你的想法。_______ _______ ________,I can’t agree to your idea.

③一般地说,青年人喜欢流行音乐。___________,young people enjoy pop music.

Key:①Strictly,speaking②To,be,honest③Generally, speaking

表示“没必要做某事”的4种句型 ①There be no need(for sb.) to do sth. ②It be not necessary(for sb.)to do sth.

③主语+don’t/ doesn’t/ didn’t have to do sth. ④主语+needn’t+动词原形

[应用]一句多译:我们没有必要再等了。 Key:There is no need for us to wait. It‘s not necessary for us to wait. We don‘t have to wait. We need not wait. 表示“祝愿”的几种句型

①名词短语(+to you):Happy birthday to you! 祝你生日快乐。

Best wishes for Teachers’Day.祝教师节愉快。 ②All the best.祝万事如意。

All the best with your family.祝全家好。

All the best in your study/business.祝你学习/事业顺利。

③主语+wish+sb.+名词/形容词 I wish you happy.我祝你幸福。

We wish you greater progres.我们祝你取得更大进步。

④I hope+that 从句:

I hope you’ll enjoy being with us.我们希望你和我们在一起很高兴。

⑤部分祈使句也可表祝愿:

Remember me to your family.代我向你全家问好。 Send best wishes to him.向他问好。 break 小结

break 一词常用搭配有:

(1)break out(战争、火灾、争吵、瘟疫等)爆发 A big fire broke out in the city last week. (2)break away from 脱离

A carriage(车厢)broke away from the train. (3)break the law 违反法律

Who breaks the law will be punished by the law. (4)break in 破门而入;打断

He broke in to say that he was not interested in what I was talking about.

(5)break down 损坏;中断

Her fridge has broken down for a long time. (6)break off 打断;结束;暂停

They were arguing(争论)but broke off when someone came into the room. (7)break into闯入;侵入

Thieves broke into my house when I was out. break off

该短语动词的意思是“中断说话”,“暂时停止”。如:

He broke off in the middle of a sentence. break sth.off/break off sth. with sb. 前者意为“(使)折断”,后者意为“与某人突然断绝(关系)”。如: The mast broke off /was broken off when the ship

was moving.

break out(战争、火灾、疾病、瘟疫等的)爆发 ①The American Civil War broke out in 1861. ②Fire broke out in the neighbour last night. break out in (into)„忽然(做出)„„ break out in laughter突然放声大笑 break in (强盗等)强行闯入

break into闯入;打碎(打破)成„„ break up 分开,分割 bring短语归纳

bring down(风)刮倒,降低(降落);bring up 养大,呕吐;bring about带来,引起;bring along捎来,带来,bring back 归还;bring out 拿出;bring in 赚(钱),带进,传入;bring on 端上(饭菜),引起(火灾),使„„成长; [应用]副词填空

①He felt terribly ill and brought ______ what he ate. ②Surely the new railway will bring __ many changes in this less developed area.

③Next time you come to China, be sure to bring ______your friends.

④All the library books must be brought_______ before June20.

⑤Selling newspapers brings ______ enough money for my schooling.

⑥Enough water can bring the rice _______ . Key: ①up ②about ③along ④back ⑤in ⑥on bring/take/fetch(get)/carry

①bring向着说话人的地方“带来;拿来”。 ②take由说话人的地方“带走;拿去”。

③fetch(get)由说话人的地方“去拿来、带来”,指往返双程。

④carry“携带;搬运;运送”,无方向性。

bring in 把„„拿进来;收获;赚入„„;获利 They bring in one million dollars a year from their new company.

broadcast vt.;vi.广播;播放。过去式和过去分词均为broadcast。

①The BBC broadcasts every day.BBC每天都广播。 ②The news was broadcast on the radio.这个消息是收音机里播送的。 burst into tears

该动宾短语,理解的重点是不及物动词burst的意思及其分词或副词连用的结构形式和意思。 burst是及物动词或不及物动词,意为“(使)爆破”,“胀破”。如:

①He put too much air into the balloon and it burst.

②The funny joke made the children burst their sides with laughing.

burst由原意引伸出表示空发性的动作,意为“突然发生”,“突然发作”。常构成一些短语,如: burst into tears/laughter(突然大哭/大笑) burst into song(突然唱起歌来)

burst into angry speech(大发雷庭) burst into bloom(开花)

burst into view/sight(景象,奇观的)突然出现 burst into the room(闯入房间) burst out/forth laughing(捧腹大笑) burst out/forth crying(突然大哭)

如:On hearing the sad news, she burst into tears. Busy

be busy doing sth. 该结构意为“忙于做某事”。应注意的是be busy 后只能接动词-ing形式,不能接动词不定式to do,相同结构的形容词还有worth。如: ①He is busy writing his composition.

②She keeps busy working on a new novel these weeks.

③This book is well worth seeing.

but prep. 除„之外。与except同义,除了的部分与其他部分不在一个范围内,不具有一致性。except适用场合较多,but 主要用于带有nothing/nobody/no one/all 等不定代词的句子。 ①No one except/but you was late.除你之外没有迟到。(你迟到了)

②We all went to see a film yesterday evening except/but you.除你之外作天晚上我们都去看电影了。(你没去)

③That window is open except in winter .除冬天外那窗户一直开着。(冬天不开)另外,but后可接不不定式。如果句子前面有实义动词do及其变化形式时,不定式不带to; 否则不定式带to .

①I did nothing yesterday evening but watch TV.昨天晚上除看电视外我什么也没干。

②He had no choice but to leave.他只得离开。

注意:besides 也是介词,意为“除„„之外(还有)”。除了的部分和其他部分在同一个范围内,具有一致性。

①We all went to see a film yesterday evening besides you.除你之外昨天晚上我们也都去看电影了。(你和我们都去了)

②Who is going there with Tom besides you? 除你之外还有谁和汤姆一起去? but for

该短语介词意为“要不是„„”,后接名词(=without + n.),but for„短语相当于一个虚拟条

件句,因此,句中谓语动词用虚拟语气。如: The boy would have drowned but for your help.

如果接的是句子,but for要换用成but that„如: He would have helped us but that he was short of money at the time.(= if it had not been the fact that he was…) Buy

“我的金项链花了2500元”有多种译法:

by prep. 乘„„。用来表示方式,其后的名词为单数,且不加冠词。 例如 by bike/bus/ car /taxi/train//road/railway/land/boat/ship/ water/ sea/ plane/air 但:“步行”用on foot.

注意:若表示交通工具的名词前有限定词,则将by 改作in 或on.

in one‘s/the car/ bus/plane etc. on the bike by name

该介宾词组的意思是“名叫„„”;“凭名字”。如: ①He met a man, John by name. ②I knew him only by name.

by one’s first marriage 通过或由于某人的第一次婚姻

介词by有许多含义,在此处意为“通过”,相当于through。

He left by the first train. 他乘第一次列车离开了。

The electricity supply is operated by a switch.供电由一个开关控制。

by the age of/at the age of,by到„„时为止。表示的是一段时间,句子通常用完成时态。 at在„„时候。表示的是具体时间点,句子通常用一般时态。

①By the age of ten,he had learned to play the piano.10岁的时候,他就学会了弹钢琴。

②He was very clever.and at the age of 15 he went to college.他非常聪明,15岁时上大学了。

③By the end of this term,we’ll have learned 2000 English words.到本学期末,我们将学会2000个英语单词。

④At the end of this term,we’ll hold an English party.在本学期末,我们 将举行一次英语晚会. call 短语

动词.call所构成的短语很多,现将在中学课上的常出现的由call所构成短语的意义和用法列出。 (1)call at 指短期访问某地:顺便去某处。

We called at the park when we stayed in the city. 我们在那个城市时顺便去了那个公园。 (2)call on的意思“正式拜访某人”;此外,它还有“号召”之意。如:

They called on the famous scientist.他们拜访了那个著名科学家。

The Party calls on us to learn from Comrade Lei Feng.党号召我们向雷锋同志学习。 (3)call to“大声呼唤、招呼、呼求”。如:

They called to us for help. 他们向我们呼求援助。 (4)call for可作“要求、需要、提倡”,还可作“邀约”解。如:

This is a problem that calls for immediate solution.这是个要求立即解决的问题。 I’ll call for you then and we go there together.到时我来叫你,我们一起去哪儿。

(5)call in有“召来、召请、召进”之意。

You’d better call in a doctor.你最好请一位医生来。 (6)此外,call back有“叫回来、收回”之意;call off有“叫出去、叫走”之意;call after可作“追在后面叫喊”和“以某人的名字命名”之意。 can/may/must表推测的用法

can, may, must等都可用于表推测,但它们的含义和用法不同。

must语气最肯定,指“一定、必定”,只用于肯定句中。“must+动词原形”表示对现在情况的推测;“must + have + done ”表示对过去情况的推测。如:

Mum must be cooking supper now.妈妈现在一定在做晚饭。

He must have finished his work.他一定完成他的工作了。

May/might表示“或许,可能”。如:

Tom may go abroad next year.汤姆明年可能要出国。She might have finished the work.她可能已完成这项工作了。 He can’t know the answer.他不可能知道这个答案。 can/could表示“可能,会”,我用于否定和疑问句中。如:

Could she he at home?她可能在家吗?

can,表示一时的情况,意为“有时侯会„„”。 can的这种用法,只用在肯定句中。如:

Children are lovely, but they can be tiring.

Training by yourself in a game can be highly dangerous. carry短语归纳

carry away拿走,带走;carry on(with)one’s work继续工作;carry on a struggle/fight 开展斗争;carry on a big business经营大生意;carry out a plan/order/promise/instructions/one’s duty/an experiment/advices/tests执行计划/执行命令/履行诺言/执行指示/履行职责/做实验/按建议办/进行试验;be carried up into space被发射升空。 [应用]介、副词填空

①It’s often easier to make plans than it is to carry them______.

②Let’s stop here. We’ll carry________ the conversation tomorrow.

③Carry the baby _______. It’s dangerous here. ④Rising costs made it hard to carry ________ the business.

⑤They decided to carry ________ though the weather was bad.

Key:①out ②on ③away ④on ⑤on carry out 搬出;进行,实行,执行 ①Would you please carry the chairs out? The plan should be carried out at once.

It was important to carry out the work quickly.赶快进行这些工作是重要的。

He did not carry out his promise to us. 对我们他没有实现他的诺言。 用out构成的短语:look out向外看,小心work out算出来,实行。

leave out遗漏,忽视 take/bring out拿出来 thinking out想出 hold out伸出,支持,抵抗到底 case用法小结

(1)名词case的词意 ①意为“情形、情况”。

If that’s the case, you’ll have to work much harder.如果是那种情形的话,你将不得不更加努力地工作。②意为“病例、案例”。

There were seven cases of cholera.有7起霍乱的病例。

The civil case will be heard in court next week. 这一案件将于下星期审理。 ③意为“箱、盒、容器”。

John bought a case of beer.约翰买了一箱啤酒。 (2)由case构成的短语

①in case意为“因为可能发生某事、以防万一”,

是介词短语,在句中作状语,常可置于句尾;也可用做连词,后跟that从句(that常省略),表示条件或目的,从句谓语习惯用should+动词原形(should常省略)或陈述语气。

It may rain—you’d better take an umbrella(just)in case(it does).可能下雨——你最好带把雨伞,以防万一。

In case(=If)he arrives before I get back, please ask him to wait.

如果他在我回来之前到,请让他等一下。

He doesn’t dare to leave the house in case(that)he should be recognized.他不敢出门,生怕被认出来。 ②in that case意为“既然那样、假若是那样的话”,用来承接上文。

In that case, you wouldn’t have a pan on fire. You’d have a house on fire! 要是那样,你就不光使锅着火,你还会把房子烧起来。

You don’t like the job? In that case why don’t you leave?你不喜欢这份工作?那你怎么不辞掉呢? He may be late. In that case we ought to wait for him.他可能迟到,因此我们应该等他。 ③in any case意为“无论如何、总之”。

We have to help him to pay the debt in case.我们无论如何要帮他还债。

④in no case意为“在任何情形下决不、无论如何都不”,用于句首时句子要进行部分倒装。

In no case shall I forget the expression on her face.我决不会忘记她脸上的表情。

⑤in case of sth.意为“若发生某事、如果、假如”,是短语介词,后接名词、代词、 -ing形式作宾语。 In case of fire, ring the alarm bell.遇火警时立即按警铃。

In case of rain(=In case it rains),they can’t go.要是下雨,他们就走不了了。

In case of his being absent, we’ll put off the meeting till next week.如果他缺席,我们就会把会议推迟到下周。

⑥in the case of意为“至于、就„„来说”,是短语介词。

In the case of your debt, I’ll pay it off for you.至于你的欠款,我会替你还清的。 catch fire; on fire catch fire 意为“着火”,表示动作。on fire 意为“着火、在燃烧”,表示状态。如: Suddenly a pan of oil catches fire.

Soon the whole floor was on fire and it was impossible for people on the floors above to escape. cause n.(大家为之奋斗的)事业

Helping the poor is a worthy cause. 帮助穷人是一项有价值的事业。

World peace is the cause he works for. 世界和平是他为之奋斗的事业。

cause v.导致,引起

1)接名词:cause an accident/trouble/death/a fire/a serious illness/damage引起事故/惹麻烦/导致死亡/引起大火/导致重病/造成损害

2)接双宾语:cause sb.pain/trouble/damage给某人带来痛苦/麻烦/损害

3)接复合宾语:cuase sb. to do sth使某人做某事 The sound caused me to jump back. 那声音吓得我向后退。

[应用]完成句子

①什么使她改变了计划?

What _______ _______ ______ _______her plan? ②地震使所有的楼房倒塌了。

The earthquake ________ all the buildings ________ _______.

Key:①caused,her,to,change ②cuased,to,fall certain某(些),仅作形容词用法。 ①He didn’t come for a certain reason. ②A certain person called on me yesterday. ③She will do it on certain conditions. some 也可以作此意讲,但前面无冠词 ①He is living at some place in East Africa.

②I’ve read that story before in some book of other. chance

1)用于短语:

give sb.a chance给某人一次机会; have a chance to do sth.有机会做; miss a chance错过机会; lose a chance失去机会; 2)用于句型:

The chance is that„/ The chances are that„表示“有可能„„”(句型中的The和That 可省略)。如: The chance is (that)she‘s already heard the news. 可能她已听到那则消息了。

Chances are that the new machine will arrive tomorrow.

新机器可能明天到。

3)后接of 或that从句表示“可能性”。如: He has no chance of winning the match.他不可能赢得这次比赛。

There is a chance that I will see him.我有可能见到

他。

[应用]一句多译: 那里有可能藏着蛇。

The chances are that there is a snake over there. There is a chance of a snake hiding there. There is a chance that a snake is over there. change one‘s mind

该动宾词组意为“改变主意”,其中mind常用单数形式。如:

If one always change one‘s mind, he succeeds in nothing.

check out清点;结账;核实;检查;开票提款 Ask him to check the information out for us.请他为我们核实一下信息。

We‘d better check the whole room out in case it has been bugged .

我们最好检查一下整个房间以免有蛀虫。 The trainees checked out all right. 这些培训学员完全合格。

She checked out 6000 dollars.她提款6000美元。 come true成为现实、实现

表示变化过程的系动词有:become,get,turn,而be表状态

区别:①He became(get,turned)angry when hearing the news.听到那消息他生气了。(从不„„到生气) ②He was angry, because he heard some bad news. 他生气是因为听到不好的消息。 常用的单位量词

a piece of diary一则日记;a sheet of paper 一张纸;a suit

of clothes一套服装;an article of clothing一件衣服;a crowd

of people一群人;a basin of water 一盆水;a block of wood一块木头;a cake of soap 一块肥皂;a bottle of ink一瓶墨水;a grain of sand 一粒沙子;a group of tall trees 一片高树;a team of players一队运动员;a copy of China Youth 一分《中国青年》;a drop of oil 一滴油;a loaf of bread一块面包;a pack of cigarettes一包烟;a pair of socks一双短袜;a tin of beer一罐啤酒;a set of equipment一套设备;a bucket of water一桶水;a couple of eggs两个鸡蛋;a pile of old books 一堆旧书;a bowl of rice 一碗米饭;a handful of sand一把(少量的)沙 注意:上述单位量词本身具有复数形式,亦可被具体数字修饰,句中的谓语多用复数形式。 [应用]汉译英

①搬家时成堆的旧书被卖掉。 ②三条重要新闻刊登在头版。 Key:①Piles of old books were sold when we moved. ②Three pieces of important news were printed in the front page.

常用合成形容词构成形式;

(1) adj+n.+ed:cold-blooded冷血的middle-aged中年的simple-minded头脑简单的,纯朴的 The white-haired girl was named Xi‘er. 那个白毛女叫喜儿。

The milddle-aged woman is warm-hearted and is always willing to help others.

那位中年妇女是个热心肠,总是乐意助人 (2) n. +pres.p.(现在分词):English-speaking说英语的man-eating吃人的

(3) n. + adj:snow-white雪白的world-famous世界闻名的

(4)num.(数词)+n.+ed:four-legged四条腿的nine-storeyed九层的

(5) n.+ past p.(过去分词):man-made人造的 (6) adj.+ pres. p.:good-looking好看的 (7) adv. + past. P. :well-known著名的 chief/ main

两者都有“主要的”、“首要的”之意,但有区别。 chief 主要用于人,表示“为首的,有最高地位或权力的”。

main一般说明事与物,可指某些具体的或抽象的东西。如:

He is the chief policeman. 他是警长。

This is our main teaching building. 这是我们的主教学楼。 clear

(1)用作形容词,表示“清楚的,明白的”。如: in a clear voice以清楚的声音;

be clear about sth.对„„清楚,明白; be clear to sb.对某人来说很清楚;

make one’s meaning clear 说明自己的意思; 注意两个句型:A:make it clear that„声明,说明;B.It’s (was)clear that„很明显(清楚)„„。 (2)用作动词,表示“清除,清理,使干净”。如: clear one‘s room/a table/a street/the desk 整理房间/收拾桌子/清扫大街/整理书桌;

clear away the dishes/waste把餐碟收走/把垃圾清除 (3)clear up 的三个意义: A.表示“清理,收拾,解决”。如:

The dustmen were busy clearing up the snow on the road.

清洁工正在清除路上的积雪。

This book has cleared up many problems for me. 这本书给我解决了许多难题。

B.表示“(天气)转晴”。如:

It‘s snowing now, but I think it will clear up soon. 现在正在下雨,但是我想天气很快会晴的。 C.表示“露出喜悦的心情”。如: Her face cleared up as she read the letter. 她看信的时候面露喜色。 [应用]完成句子

①她对下一步干什么十分清楚。

She is _________ _________what to do next. ②很清楚敌人是不会放弃他们的计划的。

________ _______ _______that the enemy wouldn‘t give up their plan.

③他明确表示他要离职。

He _________ _________ ________that he would leave office.

④在离开办公室以前,请把你的桌子整理一下。 _________ ________your desk before you leave the office.

Key:①clear,about ②It, is, clear ③make , it clear ④Clear,up

clear up(天气)放晴,使明了,收拾整理,解决,了结

The sky cleared up just after the rain. 雨过天晴。 Don’t expect me to clear up after you. 别期望我在你后面收拾东西。(收拾不要的东西)

The police haven’t cleared up the murder case. 警察还没查清那件谋杀案。

His face cleared up as she heard the news.(引申义) 听到这个消息她脸上露出喜悦之情。

对比:clean up打扫干净,整理,获利,赚钱 The students cleaned up the classroom after class.(打扫干净)下课后学生们打扫教室。 cloth; clothes; dress

cloth指做衣服等用的“衣料、布”。一般作不可数名词。如:

I put a piece of wet cloth around my face and lay on the floor for about two hours.

注:用于表达特殊用途的布,如“桌布、抹布”等时,cloth用做可数名词。如: He washed a table cloth just now. clothes意为“衣服”,总是以复数形式出现,泛指身上穿的各部分衣着,包括上衣、裤子、内衣、背心等。如:Look at these clothes. They are on Mrs Green’s clothes line. 注意: (1)“一件衣服”不可说 a clothes, 应说 an article of clothing;“一套衣服”可说a suit(set) of clothes. (2)clothes 前不可直接用数词修饰,如不可说three clothes.

(3)clothes 前可用these, those, the, many, few修饰,口语中可用much, little修饰。

(4)chothes作主语时,谓语动词只能用复数形式。 dress 可用于可数和不可数名词,用于可数名词时,常指妇女、儿童服装、内衣或外衣等公共场合穿的衣服。用于不可数名词时,统指“衣服”。该词可作动词,意为“给„„穿衣”。如: What colour is Mrs Green‘s dress?

He could not wash himself or get dressed. combine; connect; join; unite 此组动词意为“联合、连接”。 combine意为“结合、联合”,指为了某一目的而把两事物结合在一起。如:

We must combine theory with practice.我们必须把理论和实践联系起来。

He combines botany with chemistry.他把植物学和化学联系起来了。 connect“连接”,指用东西把两事物连接在一起,或两事物直接相连,二者仍保持原状。

The two cities are connected by a railway. 两座城市由铁路相连。

He connected the gas stove with gas pipe.他把煤气和接在煤气炉上。 join意为“连接”,指以线、绳、桥等把两物或两地连接在一起,和connect意思相近,也可指两物互相紧密相接。如:

We had better join the island to the mainland with a steel bridge.我们最好建一座钢筋桥把这个岛与大陆连接起来。

Where does this stream join the Changjiang River?这条河和长江在哪里会合? unite意为“联合”,指两种以上的事物结合为一体,有合二为一的意味,强调结合后的统一性。

The two companies will unite into one.这两家公司将合并成一家。

The whole family united to help him.全家齐心协力帮助他。

come about: happen 产生;发生。相当于不及物动词,和happen, take place一样无被动语态。

①How did this accident come about ?这事故怎么发生的?

②I don’t know how the quarrel came about.我不知道怎么发生的争吵。

come across=meet with(meet„by chance/accident)无意中碰到,找到,想到

Perhaps I shall come across him somewhere in the

park.

也许我会在公园的某个地方遇到他。 He came suddenly across an idea. 他突然有了一个好主意。

come down下来,流传下来,倒塌,没落,病倒,减价

The song comes down to us from the 10th century.(流传下来)

这首歌是从10世纪流传到我们这一代的。

The roof of the house came down during the night. 我听说计算机要降价。 come out

come out是本单元需要掌握的一个重点词语,现在我们对它们的用法作一比较全面的了解。 (1)come out(= be published)出来;出版

I’ll let you have a copy of my book as soon as it comes out.我的书一出版我就送你一本。 (2)come out (= to bloom)长出;发芽;开花;(使)开花;(使)繁盛

Spring comes, the trees turn green and flowers come out.春天来了,树变绿了,花儿开了。 (3)come out (= to appear)出现;出来

Ever since then, the bat comes out only at night.从那时起,蝙幅只在晚上出来。

(4)come out(= to win„)获得(名次)

I came out first in the examination.我考试得了第一名。

(5)come out(= to become known)传出,公之于众;(秘密)泄露

The truth will come out some day.总有一天会真相大白的。

(6)come out (= to be seen, as in a photograph)(在相片等中)显示;被看见

Mary always comes out well in photos.玛丽总是很上相。

(7)come out (= to be developed)冲印;冲洗

The boss said that the photos had been come out for a long time.老板说照片已经冲印出来很久了。

(8)come out (= to be removed; disappear)去掉;消失 Would you please help me to make the ink in my shirt come out?你能帮我把衬衣上的墨水渍去掉吗?

(9)come out (to be on strike; to refuse to work)罢工 The workers came out for a pay raise.工人们为增加工资而罢工。

(10)come out (= to end in the stated way)后来发现;结果是

The answer to the question came out wrong.这个问题的答案后来发现是错误的。

(11)come out (= to express clearly)(意思)表达清楚 The meaning of his speech did not come out well.他讲话的意思不很清楚。

(12)come out (= to be counted)算出来;总计

The total expense(花费)comes out at 5000 yuan.总开支达五千元。 come to light 发现,暴露(= be discovered / exposed /found out / be brought to light)

Much more new evidence has come to light(has been discovered/has been exposed/has been brought to light),so the judges have to sentence the man to death.

新的证据不断被发现,所以法官们不得不判这个人死刑。

When the old woman died, it came to light that she was actually very rich.

老太婆死后,人们才发现她其实很富有。 common adj.共同的;一般的;公共的

A great interest in music was common to them.他们对音乐都有共同的强列的兴趣。

The common people in those days suffered a lot.当时一般民众生活都很苦。

We work for the common good.我们为了公共利益而工作。

common ,ordinary

二者都有“普通的,平常的”的意思,但侧重点不同。ordinary侧重表示“外表平凡,平平常常”;而common指“普遍存在,经常碰到”。对比: in ordinary dress穿着平常的衣服; in an ordinary way以通常的方式;

an ordinary – looking man相貌平常的人; an ordinary event平常的一件事; common excuse常用的借口;

common knowledge常识;common people普通人,老百姓;

have a bathroom in common合用洗澡间。 [应用]完成句子

①那是一首普通的舞曲。It was a piece of______dance music.

②这种天气在南方是很常见的。This sort of weather is quite _________in the south.

③这弟兄两个没有什么共同之处。These two brothers have nothing ________ _________. Key:①ordinary ②common ③in common communicate v. (1)vt.传达,传送,传染

communicate information/feelings/news„to sb.把信息、感情、消息„„传递/传达给某人

I’ll communicate the news to you directly. 我会直接把消息传达给你。 (2)vi.通讯,通话

communicate with sb.(by)用„„与某人联络/沟通

We communicate with each other by telephone/letter. 我们用电话/信件彼此沟通。 拓展:communication n.[u]通讯[c]消息pl.通讯系统 Radio and television are important means of communication. 收音机和电视机是信息交流的重要工具。

Communications satellite helps the human a lot in many ways . 通讯卫星在很多方面对人类有很大的帮助。

complete, finish

二个词都有“完成”之意,但complete更突出使一切完备、没有欠缺、多指完成工程、设计等。而finish是一般用语。常用短语有:complete the work完成工作;complete the new railway 修完铁路;complete one’s collection of stamps完备集邮;finish one’s homework/middle school/writing the article 完成作业/中学毕业/写完文章。

注意:complete还可用作形容词,意为“完全的,彻底的、完成了的”。completely 是副词,“完全地、彻底地”。如:a complete sentence/strange/success/failure完整的句子/完全陌生/完全成功/彻底的失败。This job is completely new to me.这项工作对我来说是完全陌生的。 [应用]单句改错

①You have to finish to read the whole passage in five minutes.

②Professor Smith has been complete successful in working out the problem.

Key:①改to read为reading,因为finish后只能接动名词。②改complete为completely。 congratulate v. 祝贺,庆贺

常用短语:congratulate sb. on / upon sth. / doing sth.为某事向某人祝贺

congratulate oneself that„因„„而自己庆幸 congratulations常用于祝贺语,后可接on,也可单独用。

I‘d like to congratulate you on your success. 对你的成功我表示祝贺。

I’d like to offer my congratulations on your success. 对你的成功我表示祝贺。

You really should congratulate yourself on your appearance.

(= You really should congratulate that you are so handsome.) 你真该为自己的外表而庆幸。 对比:celebrate sth.庆贺某事

We’ll celebrate the New Year with a dance party. 我们将举行跳舞晚会以庆贺新年。

拓展:in celebration of„庆祝„„ hold a celebration举行庆祝(会) congratulate, congratulations

①congratulate是动词,作“祝贺、庆祝”解时,必须以被祝贺的人作宾语,构成:congratulate sb. on sth./doing sth.表示“祝贺某人„„”。另外:congratulate oneself表示“庆幸,感到幸运”。如: We congratulated him on his success/his having succeeded.

我们祝贺他的成功。

I congratulated myself on having escaped unhurt. 我因自己幸免于难而感到幸运。 ②congratulation是名词,多用作复数形式。注意下列用法:

Congratulations!(单独使用)祝贺你!

Congratulations on your success对你的成功我表示祝贺。

Congratulations to everybody!祝贺大家!

Please accept my congratulations on your birthday. 请接受我对你的生日祝贺。 [应用]选择正确答案

We offered him our congratulations him passing the college entrance exams.(MET‘93) A. at B. on C. for D. of connect连接,把„„联系起来

(1)vt. The road connects London and Edinburgh. 这条路把伦敦和爱丁堡连在一起。 The two cities are connected by a canal. 这两座城市由运河连在一起。

A good student must connect what he reads with and what he sees around him.

一个好学生必须把他所读的与所见的联系起来。 (2)be connected with与„„有关系;与„„有亲戚关系

She is connected with the Smiths. 她与史密斯家有亲戚关系。 对比:join„to„

Every family is joined to the world by Internet. 每个家庭由网络与世界联系在一起。 connect vt.; vi.连接;联系。

①He connected the two speakers to (with)the recorder.他把两个喇叭同录音机相连。

②Many people connect China with the Great Wall.许多人把中国与长城联系在一起。

consider用法小结

consider是个很常用的动词,其意义不同,句型结构也不同。我们在学习中要特别注意。

(1)作“仔细考虑、深思熟虑”解,consider可作不及物动词或及物动词。

作及动词时,后可接名词、代词、动名词作宾语,不能接动词不定式,但可以接疑问词+不定式,相当于宾语从句。例如:

Consider carefully before you decide.你要慎重考虑后再做决定。

They considered your suggestion.他们仔细考虑了你的建议。

He is considering studying abroad.他在考虑出国留学。

We are considering how to help them.我们在考虑如何帮助他们。

(2)作“将„„视为、认为、以为”解。

①可用consider+名词+(to be)名词(形容词)或consider+名词+as+名词(形容词)结构,但当不定式为行为动词时,不能省略,不可用于进行时。这样用时相当于that引导宾语从句。例如:

He considers himself(to be)clever(=as clever).=He considers that he is clever.他认为自己很聪明。 I consider him(to be)my closest friend(as my closest friend).=I consider(that)he is my closest friend.我把他视为我最亲密的朋友。

He is considered to have invented the first computer.他被认为是最早发明计算机的人。

②还可用于consider+it(形式宾语)+形容词+不定式结构。例如:

I consider it wrong for students to smoke.我认为学生抽烟是不对的。 consider的用法:①You should consider the question.你应该考虑这个问题。 ②跟从句

He began to consider when he would get married他开始考虑什么时侯结婚的事情。 ③跟疑问词 + to do sth.

He is considering how to get there in time.他正想怎么能及时赶到那儿。 ④跟动名词

Who considers answering the question?谁正在考虑回答这个问题? ⑤为„„着想

He always considers others before himself他常先为别人着想。

⑥名词为:consideration(不可数)

take sth. into consideration把„„考虑在内 If you want to go on holidays in Beijing,you should take the cost into consideration.

如果想到北京去度假,你应该考虑费用问题。 content

(1)n.内容;目录

He always reads the contents of a book first of all.他读书总是先从目录看起。 (2)adj.满足的;甘心的

Are you content with your work?你对你的工作满意吗?

(3)vt.使(某人)满足。

The little boy contented himself with a new toy.那男孩有了新玩具就满足了。 continue v.继续

They rain continued for three days.雨连续了3天。 They continued their game after lunch. 他们午饭后继续比赛。

He continued writing /to write late into the night. 他继续写作到深夜。

The weather continued cold.天气持续寒冷。 cover盖上;掩盖;占据(时间)(空间),走过(路程);采访。

①My mother covered the baby with a blanket.

②She tried to cover the fact that she had been to the place.

③I’m covering the accident. create; invent; discover

三者含义相近,但用法不同: (1)create“创造、创作”,指产生出新的东西,其对象往往是精神上的,如艺术、文学作品中的人物及新的科学领域等。例如:

Shakespeare created many famous characters.莎士比亚创造了许多有名的人物。 (2)invent“发明”,指创造出原来自然界不存在的东西,如工具、方法、手段、灯泡、汽车、电视、合成材料等。例如:

who invented the telephone?谁发明了电话?

He invented a new teaching method.他发明了一种的教学方法。

(3)discover指“发现或找到”某种自然界本来已存在,但以前未被人类发现或认识的事物,如发现元素、电、煤、石油、铁等矿藏以及新星、星系或科学真理等。例如:

I discovered an unopened letter in the drawer.我在抽屉里发现了一封未拆的信。

crowd

crowd 可用作名词,表示“人群,群”;用作动词,表示“群集,拥挤”。如:

a crowd of children一群孩子;crowds of books 成堆的书;a cheering crowd 欢呼的人群;crowd into 挤进;crowd in 拥入;crowd round围在„„的周围;a crowded city/train拥挤的城市/火车;be crowded with 挤满、塞满 [应用]汉译英

①很多村民从大门拥入,院子里很挤。 ②大厅里挤满了学生。

Key:①Many villagers crowded in through the gate and the yard was crowded.

②The hall was crowded with students. cut短语归纳 1)用作动词: get one’s hair cut理发;cut a loaf of bread in two 把一块面包一切为二;cut a figure in stone 雕刻石像;cut the price 降价;cut the article 删节文章;cut down trees 伐树;cut down on smoking减少吸烟;cut in 插嘴,插入,cut in with a few words插嘴讲几句话;cut off a corner切掉一角;cut off electricity切断电源;cut off three sentences删去三个句子;cut out切掉,删掉;cut out the last part of the play把剧本的最后一部分删掉;cut„open切开。 2) 用作名词:the cuts on one’s arms 臂上的伤口:make big cuts削减,降价 [应用]介、副词填空

①Big cuts have been made____the prices of medicine.

②The strong wind cut_____the electricity of the whole city.

③The chairman spoke so fast that nobody could cut____.

④All the trees were cut_____.They will have to answer for their foolish action Key:①in ②off ③in ④down date back to / date from 追溯到(某个时期),起始于(某个时期),从„„时候就存在

The tower dates back to 1173. 这座塔起始于1173年。

The old church dates from the first century A.d. 这座古老的教堂起始于公元1世纪。

My interest in stamp collecting dates from my schooldays.

从学生时代起,我对集邮就开始感兴趣。 day by day一天天地 day after day日复一日,一天又一天

①Day by day he seems to grow a little stronger. ②I have to do this work day after day. deal with,do with

1)二者都可表示“对付,应付,处理,安排”,但deal是不及物动词,可与how连用;而do是及物动词,只与what连用表示上述意义,不能单独使用。对比:We don’t know what to do with the waste materials./We don’t know how to deal with the waste materials.

我们不知道怎样处理这此废料。

What‘s the best way of dealing with thieves? 对付小偷最好的办法是什么?

(此句中的deal with不可替换成do with) 2)deal with还可表示“论述,涉及到;与„„相处”等意义,而do with 无此用法。如:

The books dealing with Asian problems sell well in colleges.论述亚洲问题的书在大学里很畅销。 That man is easy to deal with.这个人容易相处。 [应用]完成句子

①你是怎么处理这类事情的?

_________did you deal with matters of this sort? What did you ________ _________matters of this sort?

②我们要处理的棘手事太多了。

There are too many difficulties for us to _________ ______.

Key:①How/ do,with ②deal, with delight

to one‘s delight

该词组意为“使某人高兴”,还可以表达为“to the delight of sb.”。

能这样表达的还有to one’s joy,to one’s surprise,to one’s sorrow等。如:

To my shame, I completely forgot our date. demand

①当可数名词“要求”用

We refused his unreasonable demands.我们拒绝了他的无理要求。 ②当不可数名词用

There is a great demand for typists but(a)poor demand for clerks.打字员很抢手但是办公室职员几乎没人需要。 ③当动词用:demand+名词、代词、从句或to do sth.如:

They demanded the right to do things they like. 他们要求有做自己喜欢做的事情的权力。

The lady demanded to see our headmaster.那个女士

要求见校长。

He demanded that we (should)try to finish our work on time.他要求我们按时完工。

宾语从句用虚拟语气形式,主+should+动原„„ ④demand问

“How old are you?‖he demanded. 他问我“你多大啦?”

depend on(=rely on)依靠;依赖;以„„而定;取决于„„。如:

①Whether you will succeed or not depends on how hard you

work.你是否成功得看你努力的程度。

②I don’t want to depend on my parents any longer.我不想再依赖父母了。

destroy t.毁坏;破坏;毁灭。

①Don’t destroy the box .It may be useful.不要弄坏这个盒子,可能还有用。

②The whole building was badly desdtroyed by the fire.整幢楼房都被大火严重烧毁了。 determine v.

(1)决心、决定,其后可接动词不定式、从句或on引导的短语。如:

We determined to get the work done before October 1.我们决定在“十一”之前完成这项工作。 She determined to go that very afternoon.

Have you determined where you’re going to spend the summer vocaion?你决定在哪儿过暑假了吗? They determined on an early start.他们决定早动身。 He has determined on going home next week.他决定下周回家。 (2)使„„决意,后接不定式或介词短语作宾补。如:

What determined you to accept the invitation?什么原因使你接受这个请帖?

The situation determined him against further delay.形势使他决定不再拖延。

(3)be determined(to do sth.)下定决心;有决心,后接不定式或从句。如:

He was determined to study English well.他下决心把英语学好。

I was determined not to follow their advice.

We were determined that we should never allow such things to happen again.我们决定绝不允许这类事情再次发生。

(注意从句运动用should + 动词原形)] determine to do sth.决定(心)做„„

I left him,determined never to set foot in that house again. devote„to„把„„献给,把„„用在 devote oneself to„致力于,献身于

be devoted to„专心致志于,献身于,忠于 ①Mary devotes too much time to eating.

②He has devoted his whole life to benefiting mankind.

③He devoted himself entirely to music.

④He was still devoted to the study of chemistry. ⑤He is very devoted to his wife.

die out 熄灭;绝种;逐渐消失。如: ①The fire died out .火灭了。 ②That talkative man’s voice died out.那个健谈的人的声音渐渐地听不见了。

2.the + 形容词(分词)表示一类人的用法。 常见的短语有:

the old(young; rich; poor; learned; living„).如: The living should carry out what the dead unfinished. 活着的人(后人)应该把前人未竞事业进行到底。 3.no more than①(=noly)仅仅,不过。②两者都不。如:

①What can I do, I’m no more than a citizen. 我能怎么样,我只不过是个平民百姓。

②Tom is no cleverer than Jack.汤姆和杰克都不聪明。

但是:not more than 表示A 不如B(„„)或不超过。如;

①My English is not better than yours. 我的英语不如你的好。

②I think you are not more than twenty years old. 我想你不满二十岁吧。 diet; food

两者都可作“食物”解。diet指的是习惯上吃的食物或规定要吃的食物,特指维持健康的定量或定质的食物,如病人的疗养饮食。food是一般用语。凡能吃喝的具有营养的东西都可称food.例如: The Chinese diet is considered to be the healthiest in the world。中国的饮食被认是世界上最健康的饮食。Proper diet and exercise are both important to health.适当的饮食和锻炼对健康都很重要。

He is on a special diet to lose weight.他服用特别饮食以减肥。

The doctor put him on a liquid diet after operation.手术之后医生规定他吃流食。

They eat different kinds of food which change into energy.他们吃的各种各样的食物都转化成能量。 His food includes eggs, vegetables, fruit and some soft drinks.他的食物包括鸡蛋、蔬菜、水果和一些软饮料。

dip into 蘸进;随便翻阅;稍稍研究

I haven‘t read that book properly. I‘ve only dipped into it.

我没有好好读那本书,仅随便翻阅一下。 I‘ve only dipped into politics. 我对政治研究不深。 discover

discover sth.发现某物;discover oneself暴露自己的身份;discover sb. doing sth.发现某人在做某事;discover sb./sth.to be„发现某人(物)„„;discover + that 从句发现„„常用搭配:discover one’s mistake/an island/the truth发现自己的错误/一座岛/事实的真相 [应用]完成句子

①我们发现他是一位出色的舞蹈家。

We ____her _____ ____ a good dancer./We _____ that_____ ____a good dancer. ②有人发现她在偷东西。

Someone ______ ______ ______ things./Someone discovered that

______ ______stealing things.

Key:①discovered,to, be/discovered, she, was ②discovered,her,stealing/she,was distance n.距离;远处

When they finish their talk, the two may be quite a distance from the place where they were standing.当谈话结束时,两个人离他们原来站的地方可能有相当一段距离了。

The waterfall can be heard at a distance of two miles. 在两英里外就能听到这瀑布声。

Hills are blue in the distance.远处的山呈蓝色。 The lion looks dangerous, so I decide to keep a distance away from it.狮子看起来很危险,所以我决定离它远点儿。

What‘s the distance between Beijing and Shanghai? 北京到上海之间的距离是多少? disturb,interrupt disturb有“打扰,扰乱,使(人)心神不宁”之意。如:disturb the sleeping child/one’s plan/the piblic peace 打扰睡觉的孩子/打乱计划/扰乱社会治安;be mentally disturbed精神上受到影响;be disturbed about 对„„感到不妥。 对比:interrupt 有“打断,打扰”之意,侧重打断。如:Don’t interrupt me while I’m busy.我忙的时候不要打扰我。 [应用]完成句子

①她获悉母亲得急病后感到心神不安。

She was________ ________ her mother‘s sudden illness./She

was________ _______hear of her mother‘s sudden illness./She was________ ________ the news of her mother‘s sudden illness.

②不要打断那位演讲者,他讲完再问你的问题。 Don‘t _________ the speaker;ask your question after the meeting.

Key:①disturbed, about/disturbed,to/disturbed, by ②interrupt

do all sb.can to do sth.:do what sb.can to do sth.尽某人的所能做某事

all 后面为that 所引导的定语从句,that在从句中作宾语已被省略;can后面为避免重复省略了do;后面的to do sth.为不定式(短语)作目的状语。all(that)sb.can(do)相当于宾语从句what sb.can(do)。 ①I’ll do all I can to help you.我将尽力帮助你。 ②He did all he could to improve his spoken English. 他尽了最大努力来提高英语口语水平。 Do give her my regards.请一定代我她问好。

助动词 do 及其变化形式可在肯定句中用来强调动词,意为“务必;一定;的确;真的”,加强了句子的语气。

①Do be careful! 一定要小心 ② I do like you.我真的喜欢你。

③She does work very hard.她学习确实很努力。 ④—Why didn’t you tell him?你为什么不告诉他? —I did tell him.我告诉他了。

do sb. a favour或do a favour for sb.给某人帮个忙,如果有to do sth.则常用。 do sb.the favour to do sth.如:

①I wonder if you can do me a favour?我不知道你能不能帮我个忙?(没有说干何事)

②Please do me the favour to open the door, I want to go out.

麻烦你给我开一下门,我要出去。 do up 收拾(东西)。整理、梳装打扮、系(扣)好„„

①He was so hurried that he did up his buttons wrongly.

他太着急了以致于扣错了纽扣。

②She spent a long time doing up her hair.她花了很长时间把头盘起来。 Do you think so?

①“so”用于避免重复前面所说过的内容,等于代替肯定的名词性从句,可与

believe,do,expect,fear,guess,hope,say,speak,suppose, think等及It appear„,It seems和I’m afraid连用。 “Will they go to see him?‖

“I believe so.(?I believe[that]they will go to see him.)‖

②表示否定时,用not代替so,但在believe,suppose,think等动词之后,如I don’t think(believe,suppose)so等,通常仍可与so连用。 ③不能和表示确信、疑问的词语连用。 I doubt about it.(√) I doubt so.(×)

do walking 步行。“do + 动名词”结构表示“干某事,有较灵活的译法。

do reading(读书)/washing(洗衣服)/cooking(做饭)/shopping(买东西)/cleaning(打扫除)等。 Do what I told you to . Don‘t be late again.

Make sure the door is shut. 让对方做或不做某事时 dozens of几十;许多。

①She bought dozens of dresses.她买了许多衣服。 ②I’ve borrowed dozens of books for my daughter.我为女儿借了许多书。 doubt v.& n.怀疑,不相信 n.

of„对„„(抱)怀疑或悲观(态度)

doubt 从句在否定句及疑问句中多跟that 引起的从句,在肯定句中多跟

whether(if)引起的从句。 ①I doubt the truth of this report.

②They have never doubted of success. ③I don’t doubt that you are honest. ④Can you doubt that he will win? ⑤I doubt if that was what he wanted. 该词作名词时有以下短语

beyond(all)doubt毫无疑问;in doubt怀疑,犹豫,不肯定;no doubt肯定地,想必;without doubt毫无疑问,一定地

①The truth of the story is beyond doubt. ②I was in doubt about what to do.

③No doubt I learned a lot from that lecture. ④Without doubt these theories were all wrong. dream vi.做梦,迫切希望

As he slept, he dreamed a dream. 他睡觉时做了一个梦。

W e dream of peace.我们梦想和平。 拓展:dream a pleasant/sweet/horrible dream 做好梦/甜梦/噩梦 live a happy/quiet/hard/normal life 过幸福/平静/艰苦/正常的生活

die a glorious death死得光荣

Do you dream at night?你晚上做梦吗? dream of„„多用于否定句中,“做梦也没想到,从未想到过”

I never dream of getting so much money. 我从未幻想过得到这么多钱。 Dream+从句

We never dreamed that the film was so long. 我们怎么也没想到这部电影这么长。 dream of迫切希望、渴望。

People all over the world are dreaming of peace. 全世界人民都渴望和平。

dreamy(adj.)模糊的,梦幻般的 I don’t believe your dreamy words.我不信你的梦语。动词 + about

read about读到有关的内容;know about了解;learn about得知有关„„;hear about 听说过;forget about 忘记有关„„;talk about 谈论;argue about争论;chat about闲谈;tell about讲述有关„„;think about考虑;write about写有关的„„;joke about拿„„开玩笑;worry about为„„担心。 [应用]汉译英

①我已在报纸上读到了有关这次事故的情况。 ②这件事我几乎忘了。 Key:①I’ve read about the accident in the newspaper. ②I almost forget about this matter. 动词+at

动词+at, 其中的at多表示“目标,方向”。如: shout at朝„„喊;laugh at 嘲笑;throw at 朝„„扔;shoot at朝„„射击;point at指着;aim at瞄准;call at拜访;stare at盯着;glance at一瞥;take a look at 看一眼;pull at 拉,扯;arrive at到达;come at 朝„„起来;tear at撕,扯 [应用]完成句子

①别对那孩子大声嚷嚷,你吓坏她了。

Don‘t ________ ________ the girl. You frightened her.

②他被朋友们嘲笑了。

He _________ _________ _________ by his friends. Key:①shout, at ②was, laughed, at 动词不定式的省略 为了避免重复,我们常常把作宾语、宾补和谓语动词的一部分的不定式省略,只保留动词不定式的符号to。现将常见省略不定式的几种情况通过实例加以简析,供大家参考:

(1)—How about coming to my house?

—I‘d love to if it doesn‘t give you so much trouble. 在hope, like, love, promise, want, wish等词后作宾语的不定式常省略。再如: You may go if you want to.

She can get a job if she hopes to.

—How about going hunting with me tomorrow? —I‘d like to, but I have no time.

(2)Don’t close the window until I ask you to. 在allow, ask, tell 等词后作宾语补足语的不定式常省略。再如:

Don‘t touch the light unless your mother allows you to.

Don‘t plant potatoes until the peasant tells you to. (3)He didn’t want to hand in his composition, but he had to.

在be able to, be going to, have to, need to, enough to, used to等后的不定式需省略。再如: I don‘t sing much, now, but I used to a lot.

If you don‘t want to say anything at the meeting, you don‘t need to.

She didn‘t go out last night, because she was afraid to.

在afraid, glad, happy, pleased, sorry等词后作状语的不定式常省略。再如:—Will you go with me to see the film tonight? —I‘ll be glad to. 动词 + off短语

fly off 飞走;go off 离开;take off 脱下,起飞;run off 跑开;fall off 掉下;turn off 关上;get off 下来;drive off 驶离;hurry off 匆忙离开;keep off 离开,勿靠近;pay off 还清(债)put off 推迟;send off驱逐;set off 出发,动身;throw off 扔掉,匆忙脱衣;ring off 挂断电话; [应用]完成句子

①此处很危险,让孩子们离开。

It‘s dangerous here.______ ______ the children. ②火车刚到,一大群人正在下车。

The train has just come in, with crowds of people_____ ______it.

Key:①keep ,off ②getting, off 动词 + up

go up(物价等)上涨,上升;build(up)one’s health使身体强壮;turn up 出席,到场,开大音量;divide up 分配;分给;set up 建立;come up走近,发芽;pick up 拾起,用车接,收听(节目);send up发射;get up 起床;grow up 长大;look up仰望,查阅;eat up 吃光;drink up喝光;use up用光;stay/sit up熬夜;give up放弃;take up占空间,从事,开始干;keep up保持,继续;put up举起,建起;hang up挂起来;hold up举起;join up 连接起来;rise up奋起反抗;move up向前移动;lift up扶起;do up包,捆;hurry up赶快;call up 打电话;break up拆散,破裂;make up组成,化妆,编造;bring up抚养大;dress up打扮;add up加起来;warm up变暖,热身。 [应用]完成句子

①物价在天天上涨。

Prices are_____ _____ day after day. ②衣服常常挂在火炉附近。

The clothes are often_______ ______ near a fire. ③妈妈的把孩子扶起来,领走了。

The mother_____ the baby______ and took him away.

④他到乡下呆了一段时间,身体好了起来。

He went and stayed in the countryside for a period of time and _____ ______ ______ _______.

Key: ①going, up②hung, up③lifted, up④built, up, his, health drop用法归纳

drop可用作名词“滴”;用作不及物动词“掉下,滴下”;用作及物动词“使掉(滴)下”。如: a drop of blood一滴血;drop by rop/in drops一滴一滴地;drop from the tree从树上掉下来;drop to the ground 落在地上;drop the letter into the mailbox把信投进信箱;drop a handkerchief/stone掉下手帕/石头

习语:drop in 顺便拜访;drop in on sb.顺便走访某人;drop in at his school顺便拜访他的学校。 [应用]完成句子

①我看见一个苹果从树上掉下来。 I saw an apple______ _______ the tree. ②他们这样做是搬起石头咂自己的脚。

In doing so they are lifting a rock to _______ ________on their feet.

③你路过的话,千万要来。

Do _______ _______ if you happen to be passing. Key:

①drop,from ②drop, it ③drop, in due to , be due to

be due(to)有“应付给,应到的,预期的”之意,多用作表语,to不定式符号;而due to表示“由于,起因于”时,to是介词,相当于because of。如: The train is due to arrive at 12.火车应于12点到。 When is the ship due?船预定何时到?

The accident was due to careless driving车祸是粗心

驾车引起的。 [应用]完成句子

①那项计划由于资金不足而失败。

The program failed ________ _________lack of money.

②希尔先生预定明天演讲两次。

Mr Hill_________ _________ ________ lecture twice tomorrow.

Key:①due,to ②is ,due, to earn v.赚;得到

①earn n. ②earn sb. sth ③earn one’s living

He earns $10,000 a year.他一年赚10,000英镑。 His honesty earned him great respect.他因诚实而博得人们的尊敬。

She earned her living by singing in a nightclub.她靠在夜总会唱歌谋生。 earn, gain, win ,get

四个词均有“得到”之意,但earn指经过艰苦努力所得到的报偿,意为“赚得”;gain指作出很大努力而“获得”,所得东西常有一定价值;get是普通词,指不一定需要努力就能“得到”;win意为“赢得”,含有取胜一方具有优越条件而能克服障碍之意。这四个词有时可通用。 [应用]英译汉

①earn much money/a prize/one’s living

②gain a victory/experience/the first prize/ten dollars/a living/success/the battle/a doctor’s degree ③get one’s help/full marks Key: ①挣得很多钱/获奖/谋生

②获胜/取得经验/获得一等奖/赚10美元/谋生/获得成功/赢得战斗/获博士学位 ③得到某人的帮助/得满分

earn one’s living,make one’s living 谋生,挣钱过活。

The professor earns his living by teaching at a language school.

eat up 吃光;吃掉。

He was so hungry that he ate up all the cakes and none was left.他太饿了,把所有的蛋糕都吃完了,一点也没剩。 类似的短语还有:drink up喝光;喝净。/burn up 烧完;烧掉。/use up 用完;用尽。/clean up打扫干净。 effect

have effect on 对„„有影响,相当于affect: It has had such a bad effect on him. effort短语归纳 make the greatest effort 做最大努力;make great efforts尽最大努力;make a special effort作出特殊努力;make an effort to do sth.努力做某事;make every effort to help you尽力帮助你;make one last effort作最后的努力;make no effort不努力;spare no efforts to do sth.不遗余力去做某事;with(an)effort艰难地;without effort轻而易举地;in an effort努力。 [应用]完成句子

①他身体很强壮,可以轻易地提起那个重箱子。 He is strong enough to lift the heavy box _________. ②我们会不遗余力地阻止他们采取这一步骤。 We will ________ _______ _______to prevent them from takingthis step.

③他艰难地游泳,为的是救出那个孩子。

He swam with difficulty________ _________ _______ ________ save the boy.

④我不会努力去帮助这样的人。

I‘ll ________ _________ _______ to help such a person.

Key:①without,effout ②spare, to ,efforts ③in, an, effort, to ④make, no, efforts make efforts to do sth.努力(尽力)干„„ make an effort (at)尽力,努力„„ spare no effort不遗余力

I made every effort to get it (at getting it) end up 结果,结束

He started as an employee and ended up as head of the firm.

他以职员开始而最后成为公司的主管。 The party ended up with a song. 晚会以一首歌曲结束。

If you continue to drive so carelessly, you‘ll end up in hospital.

如果你继续这样不小心开车,你会进医院的。 对比:end指完结或终止,为意义最单纯的用语; close指把已开始的事物像关闭似的加以结束; finish尤指最后的修饰工作,或把已经做的加以完成;

complete指把不完美的各点或有缺陷的部分加以补充完成。

Let‘s end the discussion.

The meeting was closed by the chairman‘s speech. Try to finish your homework before 9 o‘clock. Have you completed your new programme? escape(1)vi.逃走;vt.逃避

The soldier managed to escape by running into the woods.

那个士兵进树林逃掉了。

You were lucky enough to escape punishment / being punished.

你很幸运逃脱了惩罚。 (2)n.[c]逃脱,逃亡

have a narrow escape 九死一生,死里逃生 exam; exmination; test; quiz examination通常只指正式的“考试”,如期末考试、入学考试等。exam是examination的缩写,常用于口语,多为学生使用。test为“小考”成“考查”,quiz为“测验”,特指事先无准备,随时进行的测验,也可指(广播节目中的)一般知识测验、问答比赛、猜谜等。例如:

He did very well in the entrance examination. 他在入学考试中成绩很好。

There’s going to be a physics test this afternoon.今天下午将进行物理考试。

The teacher gave us a five-minute quiz.老师对我们进行了一次五分钟的小测验。 example; pattern;model

pattern“型、式样、图样”可指供模仿的某物原型或精心设计出的图样或模型,也可指榜样。如: Can you use the sentence pattern?他会用这个句型吗?

She is a pattern for us.她是我们学习的典范。 model“模型、模范”,指供模仿或值得信效的人或物。如:

Have you seen his model ship?你看见过他的船模吗?

example “例子、榜样”,主要指人及其行为和活动被他人信效。如:

Example is better than precept.身教重于言教。 except; besides; except for+名词/except that+句子用法区别。

except 相当于but,表示“除了„„以外(不包括在内)”,常与all, nobody,everything,everybody, nowhere等表示整体概念的词连用。besides相当于apart from,表示“除„„以外(尚有)”之义。except for.../except that ...表示“除了„„”之意,引述一个相反的原因或细节,因而部分地修正了句中的主要意思。如:Your article is well written except for some grammar mistakes.你的文章写得好,只是有几处语法错误。

excuse, pardon,forgive excuse“原谅,宽恕”,语气较轻,指对轻微的冒犯、失礼等的原谅;pardon用于正式场合时意为“赦免”,也有“原谅,对不起”之意,语气最重;forgive

指免除某人犯错误或违法承担的后果,或不追究其应受责备的行为。三个词都常与for连用,表示“原谅某人„„”。 [应用]汉译英

①请原谅我迟到了。

②我永远不会原谅你昨天晚上说过的话。 Key:①Please excuse we for being late.

②The court pardoned the man who had broken the law for a certain reason.

③I’ll never orgive you for what you said to me last night.

expect, wait

二者均有“等待”之意,但有不同。expect侧重心理状态,因而可译为“期待,期盼”,是及物动词;而wait指行动,有“不干别的事专门等”之意,是不及物动词。对比:

They are busy with prepartions, expecting the foreign guests.他们忙着准准备,期待着外宾的到来。 Holding little flags, the children are waiting for the foreign guests.孩子们手拿小旗,在等待外宾的到来。[应用]完成句子

①她很久没有儿子的消息了,因而期待着他的电话。She hasn‘t heard from her son for a long time, so she _______

telephones from him.

②他正等着要和你说句话。

He ________ ________ to have a word with you. Key:①expects ②is ,waiting

expert n.专家,能手 adj.精通的 ①an expert on „一名„„方面的专家 ②be expert at/in doing sth. 于„„很内行

an expert on computer science 计算机方面的专家 She‘s expert at/in looking after babies. 她对于照料婴儿很内行。

explain t. 说明;解释;讲解。

①He explained why he was late.他说明了迟到的原因。

②Please explain this exercise to me . 请把这个练习给我讲一讲。

express one’s satisfaction with对„„表示满意 be satisfied with对„„感到满意

The officials expressed their satisfaction with the preparation for the exhibition. fall短语归纳

fall from a tree从树上掉下来;fall off a table从桌子上落下;

fall out of bed 从床上跌下来;fall asleep入睡;fall

ill病倒;fall behind落后;fall in love with sb.爱上某人;fall to pieces倒塌,垮台,崩溃,解体;fall into the water跌进水中;fall down 倒下;fall onto the ground掉(倒)在地上;have many falls 跌下许多跤;in the fall在秋季。 [应用]完成句子

①那个孩子从墙上掉下来伤着了右腿。

The boy____ ____the wall and hurt his right leg. ②他不想在学习上落后于别人。

He didn‘t want to _____ ____others in his studies. Key:①fell,off ②fall,behind fall ill 生病,得病

①Tom is absent,for he has fallen ill.

②John was caught in the storm and he fell ill. fall over意为“跌倒”,“跌跤”。如:

When he was skating, he fell over some times. fall to pieces

该短语意为“垮台”,“崩溃”,“倒塌”,“解体”。如:

①Most buildings fell to pieces in the earthquake in this city.

②Most organizations fell to pieces after political reform.

far below + n.

该词组意为“远远低于”,“比„„低得多”,其中far是副词,用以加强语气。如:

The production of this factory was far below the normal level last year.

far from:不仅仅,远不是(跟动名词、形容词、名词或代词)。如:

①Far being slow, they are actually fast enough.他们一点也不慢,相反非常迅速。

②It’s far from perpect.它还很不完美。 另外:由far引出的短语 ①go far(物)经用、时间长

This food can’t go far.这些东西不够吃。 ②so far:到目前为止、到„程度(地步)

I can only tell you so far.我只能给你说到这一步。 ③as far as就„„而言、从„„来看、尽„„所能、只要„„、一直查到某地

As far as I know, he will not come.据我所知,他不会来啦。

You should stick to your opinion as far as it is reasonable.只要你有理,就应该坚持。 We walked as far as the church. 我们一直走到教堂跟前。

feed vt. 喂养;以„„为。常用结构: feed…with/on sth . feed sth . to ①She feeds her baby with /on cow’s milk./she feeds cow’s milk to her baby.她用牛奶喂孩子。

②I feed my cat with/on fish./I feed fish to my cat .我用鱼喂猫。

另外:feed (vi.)on 相当于live on , 意为“以„„为主食”。

Sheep feed mainly on grass.羊以草为主食。 fight against;fight for

feed„on„以„„饲养(动物) feed on(动物)以„„为食

feed„to„喂(动物)„„当饲料。 feed a dog on meat 以肉饲养狗

feed meet to a dog

Cows feed on hay during winter. feel like„想(做某事);愿意。

I feel like going to a museum.我想去博物馆。

I feel like a drink. Have you got any beer?我想喝点东西,你俩有啤酒吗?

fight with,fight against意为“为反对„„而战、与„„作斗争”,against 后面接的是反对的对象,如:

They are fighting against their enemy.他们在与敌人作战。

Political leaders fought against slavery.政治领导们为了反对奴隶制度而斗争。

fight for 意为“为争取„„而斗争、因为„„而打架”。如:

Two dogs fight for a bone,and a third runs away with it.两只狗为抢一块骨头而打架,另一只狗把骨头叼走了。

fight with意为“同„„(一起并肩)作战、与„„作战”,它含有两重意思,试比较:

They fought with the Italian in the last war.他们在最后的这次战争中是与意大利人作战。

They fought with the Italian against France in that war.在那次战争中,他们和意大利联合作战反对法国。

figure; shape;form

这组名词都有“形状”的意思。

shape 着重指人或物等的比较具体的整个外形,不太正式;form指有实体结构和看得见的某种特殊形状或是抽象的形式;figure指物时,侧重指轮廊,指人时,着重指姿态。如:

Coins may be of different sizes,weights, shapes, and of diff-

erent metals. 硬币可能大小、轻重、形状不同,铸造的金属也可能不一样。

The shape of Italy is like a leg.意大利国的形状像一条腿。

Change these sentences into the Present Perfect Passive,putting the verbs into the correct forms.用动词的正确形式将下面的句子变成现在完成时的被动语态。

Ice,snow and steam are forms of water.冰、雪、蒸气是水的几种形态。

You can see the tall stone figures and visit the temples of the gods.你可以看到那些高大的石雕像, force / fight one’s way突破„„而前进 push one’s way排开„„而前进 fine adj./adv./n./v.

(1)adj.美好的,天气晴朗的,(身体)好的,细的

It’s fine today.今天天气很晴朗。

What a fine view it is!多么美丽的风景! —How are you? —你好吗?

—Fine, thank you. 参观那些神殿。

这组名词也可当动词用,shape意为“使什么东西具有某种具体的外 形”,常有“塑造”等具体意义;form指通过协商、组织等形成某种习惯、计划或组织等,一般相当于“形成”;figure通常指象征某事物。 find

(1)vt.发现,发觉

She found a wallet lying on the ground. 她发现地上有个钱包。 We found her still asleep. 我们发现她还在睡觉。 He found her left behind. 他发现她被落在后面。

(2)n.发现,发现物(尤指贵重或悦人的)

I made a great find in a second-hand bookshop yesterday.

昨天在旧书店里我有重大发现。

对比:find多指偶然发现,碰见;后可接名词、复合结构或从句。find out指通过观察、探索而发现事实的真相、真情,通过调查找出原因,或发现秘密、错误等;一般接名词、代词或从句。discover指发现客观事物的存在,发现已存在而不为人知的事情;多用于好的事物。

Have you found the book you have been looking for?

你一直找的书找到了吗?

Have you found out why he was late? 你弄清他为什么迟到吗?

Columbus discovered America. 哥伦布发现了美洲。

find one’s way(to)找到;设法找到去„„的路 Can you find your way to the post office? 你能找到去邮局的路吗?

Rivers find their way to the sea. 条条江河通大海。

拓展:make one’s way非常困难地前进 feel one’s way 摸索着前进 —很好,谢谢!(不可用于否定句及疑问句) First there was a fine rain but then it rained heavily. 开始是毛毛细雨,接着就下大了 (2)adv.很好

Everything went fine.一切顺利

(3)[c]罚金a traffic violation fine违反交通规则罚款 (4)v.处罚金

If you make such a mistake again, you‘ll get fined. 如果你再犯这样的错误,你就会挨罚。 短语:fine and 非常,极(强调后面所接的形容词) one fine day/morning有朝一日

first of all 指按时间,顺序等处于第一位的,如: 例:First of all let me say how glad I’m to be here.首先我要说我来到这儿是多么高兴。

I’m interested in coins ,but first of all I’m a stamp collector.我对硬币感兴趣,但我首先是个集邮的。 比较:first与at first first 译为“首先/,是从动作的先后角度来考虑的。”如:

Before we go , I must first change my clothes .走之前我得先换衣服。

at first意为“起初/,含有后来不这样了的意思。”如:

At first I didn’t like him ,but now I do .起初我不喜欢他,但现在喜欢了。

for the first time 意为“第一次”。如:

It was there that they met for the first time .正是在那儿他们第一次见了面。 fit

①be fit for适合于

This job is fit for you.这份工作适合你干。 ②主语+be + fit + to do sth.如:

Nobody is fit to take his place.没有合适的人接替他。③(物,衣物之类)+fit+sb.表示衣帽之类适合某人,合身。

The shirt does not fit me well.这件衬衫不太合我的身。

fix vt.安排;修理;准备;安装;固定

We have fixed the time and date of the party. 我们已经确定了聚会的日期和具体时间。

Something has gone wrong with my tape-recorder. I must have it fixed.

我的录音机坏了,我得请人修一下。

Mother decided to fix them something to eat. 母亲决定给他们准备点吃的。

It‘s not polite to fix your eyes on others. 盯着别人看是不礼貌的。

It is necessary for a child to form the habit of fixing his attention on/ upon what he is doing.

孩子养成专心做事情的习惯是很有必要的。 fix a date 确定日期 fix a time确定时间 fix a place确定场所 fix vt.决定,确定 fix+n./wh-/to do sth.

My uncle is fixing to set up a company.

fix up vt.搭起、安装,修理,安排(住宿等),提供,

We must fix the house up before we move into it. Flash in a flash

该介宾词组意为“转眼间”,“突然间”,“瞬间。”如:

In a flash. I realized where we had met before. fly

(1)vt.飞跃 +地点或距离作宾语:驾驶(飞机);(用飞机)运送;放(风筝)

fly the Atlantic / the English Channe/ a distance of 2000 km

飞跃大西洋/英吉利海峡/2000公里的距离

Supplies of food have been flown to the refugees. 补给的粮食空运给那些难民。 The children are flying their kites. 孩子们在放风筝。

(2)vi.飞,飞行,飞跑

Time flies like an arrow. 光阴似箭。 The little girl flew to her grandmother. 这女孩向她奶奶飞跑过去。 (3)n.苍蝇

butter(奶油)+fly(苍蝇)=butterfly(蝴蝶) dragon(龙)+fly(苍蝇)=dragonfly(蜻蜓) fire(火)+fly(苍蝇)= firefly(萤火虫)(=lighting-bug,美语) follow t.

(1)跟随;跟着。

We followed the professor into the lab . 我们跟着教授走进了实验室。 (2)听懂;理解。

Would you please say it again? I can’t follow you. 请再说一遍好吗?我没听懂。

4. know about/of : have information concerning 听说(关于„„的事情);知道;了解。

Know vt. : have in mind as the result of experience or because one has learned 认识,知道。

①I don’t know the writer , but I know about him.我不认识那位作家,但我听说过他。

②I know him ,but I don’t know about him. 我认识他,但我并不了解他。

for a start/to start with首先,第一点

You have no right to be here, to start with. 首先,你无权在此。 It won’t work:for a start, we don’t have so much money and secondly we cannot get the permission. 那不行,首先我们没那么多钱,其次我们不能被批准。

for example / such as

for emample 用来举例说明,例子通常是一个。它可放在所举例子的前面,也可放在后面;such as 用来列举事物,只能放在所列举的事物的前面。另外,只列举有代表性的事物,并不全部列出。如: Some students are often late for school, Li Ling ,for emample .有些学生上学经常迟到,例如李玲。 He can speak several foreign languages, such as English, Janpanese,

German and so on.他会说好几种外语,比如英语、日语、德语等。

forbid(forbade, forbidden) ①forbid sb.to do sth.如:

My mother forbids me to keep in touch with that boy.我妈不让我与那个男孩交往。 ②forbid(one’s)doing sth.如: The law strictly forbids individual’s running business in some fields.法律严禁私人从事某些经营活动。 ③常用被动形式

Smoking is forbidden here.这儿不许抽烟。 ④表示“使„„不可能,使„„无法„„”

The bad weather forbids a spring outing.坏天气使我们无法春游。

否定转移

I/We think, believe,suppose, imagine接宾语从句时,通常否定主句谓语;但变反意问句时,却必须和从句的人称、谓语保持一致,而且要考虑主句中有无 not。如:I don’t think she is right,isn’t?/I believe that they will win the match, won’t they? [应用]汉译英

①我猜今天夜里不会有雨。

②我们认为美国不会赞同我们的和平计划。 Key:

①I don’t suppose there will be rain this night.

②We don’t think America will agree to our peace plan. form

in the form of 以„„的形式呈现,prep.take the form of 以„„形式呈现,vt.

The cookies are all in the form of stars. ?The cookies all take the form of stars. free adj.

(1)空闲的;有空的。

Are you free tomorrow?明天你有空吗? (2)免费的;无偿的。

①Do you enjoy free medical care ?你享受免费医疗吗?

②—Why are you so happy?你怎么那么高兴?

—Because I got two free ticket. 我免费弄到两张票。 (3)自由的。

①The birds in the cage wish to be free.笼中之鸟盼望自由。

②You are free to say anything you want to at the meeting .会上你可以畅所欲言。 freeze,freezing,frozen

freeze是动词“结冰,凝固”;freezing可用作名词“冰点”,用作形容词“冰冷的”,用作副词“极冷地”;frozen既是freeze的过去分词形式,也可用作形容词,表示“冷冻的”。对比:

Water freezes below freezing. 冰点以下时水结冰。 It was freezing cold that morning.那天早晨非常地冷。 The roads are frozen in places.路上多处结冰。 [应用]英译汉

①above/over freezing ②freezing weather ③be frozen to death

④give sb. a freezing cold ⑤freezing machine ⑥frozen meat

⑦I’m frozen,so I can’t write

⑧I’m freezing,so I’ve to put on a heavy coat. Key:

①零度以上②很冷的天气 ③被冻死④冷冷地看某人一眼 ⑤制冷机⑥冻肉

⑦我冻坏了,不能写东西了。⑧我觉得冷极了,我得穿件厚大衣 frighten

用作动词,frighten表示“吓唬、使惊恐”。如: frighten the birds away 把鸟吓跑;be frightened by 被„„吓坏;be frightened of sb./sth.害怕某人/物;be firghtened at因„„而受到惊吓;be frightened off away被吓跑了;be frightened to dath被吓死;frighten sb.into(doing) sth.吓得某人做某事。 辨析:frightened, frightening:前者表示“感到恐惧、害怕”,后者表示“令人惧怕”。对比: frightened children吓坏了孩子; frightening voice令人恐惧的声音; her frightened look 她那恐惧的样子(自己内心害怕所显露出的表情)。 her frightening look她那可怕的样子(其样子使别人害怕)

[应用]完成句子

①那可怕的声音使我非常恐惧.

The _______ voice made me very ________. ②他吓得那个老太太签署了那份文件。

He _______ the old lady _______ ________ the paper.

③她看到蛇吓坏了。

She________ ____________ the sight of a snake. ④你怕老虎吗?

Are you __________ ________ tigers?

Key:①frightening , frightened ②frightened, into, signing

③was, frightened, at ④frightened, of “复合名词”变复数的几种形式

(1)由man和woman构成的复合名词变复数时,两个成分都要变。如:

a man doctor→men doctors男医生

a woman driver→women drivers女司机

(2)由“名词+名词”以及“动名词+名词”构成的复合名词,把复数词尾放在一个名词上。如: police officers 警官 boy-friends男朋友 match-boxes火柴盒 flower shops花店 frying pans平底锅

(3)由“名词+副词”构成的复合名词,把复数词尾放在名词上。如:

passers-by过路人 lookers-on旁观者

(4)由“家庭成员+in-law”构成的复合名词,复数形式放在第一个成分上。如: fathers-in-law(岳父) sisters-in-law(嫂嫂)

sons-in-law(女婿)

(5)复合名词中没有名词时,把复数词尾放在最后一个词上。如:

go-betweens中间人,媒人 grown-ups成年人

game,race, match

三个词都有“比赛”之意。game通常指“游戏、比赛”,其复数形式往往指大型运动会。race多指赛跑,赛马、赛车、赛船等运动。match指竞技比赛。

[应用]英译汉 ①play games

②play a game of basketball ③the Asian Games ④horse race.

⑤a 1,500-metre race ⑥run a race

⑦have a volleyball match ⑧watch a match Key:①做游戏,比赛②进行一次篮球比赛③亚运会④赛马⑤一千五百米赛跑⑥赛跑⑦举行排球比赛⑧观看比赛

get a general idea of 对„„了解大意(大概情况) Read the chapter quickly to get a general idea. 快速阅读这一章,了解大意。 I have a general idea of that town. 我对那个镇子的大概情况有所了解

get in touch with sb.; keep in touch with sb. 这两个相似动词短语的区别是:前者是表示动作性的,作“和(与)某人进行接触”解,如:

Finally Hank and his friend gave each other their addresses and promised to get in touch again with each other when they both returned to the States.最后,汉克和他的朋友互换了地址,并且保证回美国后和对方联系。

而后者表示状态,作“和(与)某人保持着联系”解。如:

Some students keep in touch with me all the time.一些学生一直和我保持着联系。

get sb. / sth. doing使某人/某物开始活跃或使某物开始工作

Let me try now, I will get the car going 现在让我试试,我会把汽车发动起来。

拓展:get sb. to do sth. = have sb. do sth.让/使某人做某事

get sth. done = have sth. done请人做某事

I’ll get him to do the job.我会让他做这项工作。 When did you get your hair cut? 你什么时候理的发? 感叹句表达方式

感叹句表示说话时的惊讶、喜悦、赞赏和愤怒等情绪。大多数感叹句是由what和how引导,其句型结构为“What(或How)+感叹部分+主语+谓语!”。也有少量其他形式的感叹句,现一并归纳如下: (1)What 引导的感叹句

What 用做定语,修饰名词,其引导的感叹句句型结构为:

①What+a(an)+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!如: What an orphan he is!他是个多么可怜的孤儿啊! ②What+a (an)+形容词+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!如:

What a beautiful voice she has!她的声音多美啊! ③What+形容词+可数名词复数+主语+谓语!如: What kind doctors they are!他们是多好的医生啊! ④What+形容词+不可数名词+主语+谓语!如: What good news it is! (2)How 引起的感叹句

How 用做状语,修饰形容词、副词和动词,其引导的感叹句句型结构为: ①How+形容词+主语+谓语! How clever you are!

②How+副词+主语+谓语! How well she dances!

③How +形容词+a(an)+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!如:

How good a student he is! ④How+主语+谓语!如:

How the teachers worked!教师们工作多么努力啊! ⑤How+many(few)+可数名词的复数+主语+谓语!如:

How many books you have read!

⑥How much(little)+不可数名词+主语+谓语!如: How little money the coat cost!

(3)“What+a(an)+形容词+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!”句型可转换为“How+形容词+a(an)+可数名词单数+主语+谓语!”句型。如; What a clever boy he is! How clever a boy he is!

(4)感叹句常将主语和谓语动词省略,以“What+名词!”或“How+形容词!”的形式构成。如: What a fine student! What mountains!

How wonderful! How brave!

(5)其他形式的感叹句

有时候,可不用what和how来表示感叹,而用陈述句、疑问句、祈使句,甚至一个词或词组来表示感叹。如:

She is such a nice girl!她是一个多好的姑娘啊!(陈述句)

Who do you think you are!你算老几!(疑问句) “Stop the train! Stop the train!”(祈使句) Wonderful!(一个词) Happy New Year!(词组)

get through 接通电话;完成;通过

I can’t get through. The line’s busy.我没能接通电话。占线了。

get through the work/the exams/the book完成工作/通过考试/看完这本书 打电话的其他交际用语:

Can you ring up „?你能给„„打电话吗? I can’t get through.我没能接通(电话) The line is busy.(电话)占线。

I’ll try again later.一会儿我再试试。

Could I speak to„ please?我找„„接电话。 This is „ speaking .我是„„ Hold on, Please.请等一等。

Can I take a message?我可以捎个口信吗? Could you ask … to ring me back, please? 你让„„给我回个电话好吗? I‘ll ask …… to call you.

我要让„„给你打个电话。

They are talking on /over the phone. 他们在通电话。 You are wanted on the phone.有电话找你。 She answered the phone.她接了电话。 give构成的短语

①give away 送给人、分发、泄露、暴露 Let’s give away our dog.我们把狗送人吧。 ②give back:送还、恢复(健康)

Living here has given me back my health.在这住使我恢复了健康。

③give in交进来,让步、妥协、投降 The boy gave in the money he picked up. 那小孩把捡到的钱上交了。

In the end,they gave in.最终,他们屈服了。 ④give off散发出

The gas gave off an unpleasant smell.那种气体发出难闻的气味。

⑤give out用完、耗尽、没有了。 Money gave out.钱用完了。 ⑥give up放弃、不再做、把„„献给„„ My father has given up smoking.我爸“戒烟了。” He has given up his life to teaching. 他一生都献给了教育事业。

Don’t give up,try again.别泄气,再试一次。 give birth to 生„„;造成„„的原因。 ①She gave birth to a baby last week. ②His illness gave birth to his absence.

Give my regards/ best wishes/love to sb. 向人问好时

give off,放出(光、烟、气味等)、散发, give out,放出,发出(声音,光线,气味等),(食物、燃料、力量等)用尽、筋疲力尽。 ①These red roses give off a sweet smell.

②This device gives out flashes of light in the fog. ③Both my strength and money gave out. go bad 变坏

类似的:go wrong,go mad,etc. go 通常表示不好的变化。 Alice‘s face went red with anger. My husband‘s hair is going gray. “go+doing”表示“去干某事”,多指从事与体育、娱乐有关的活动。

go fishing 去钓鱼 go riding去骑马 go boating 去划船 go climbing去登山 go swimming去游泳 go shooting去射击 go walking 去散步 go hunting去打猎 go shopping去买东西 go cycling去骑车 go dancing去跳舞 go camping 去露营 “go+doing”还可以表示从事某种职业。 go farming务农 go nursing当护士 go on doing , go on to do , go on with

1) go on doing sth .指继续做同一件事。如:

After a short rest , they went on working . 短暂休息之后,他们继续工作。

go on with sth . 指继续同一件事,此时 with 后能接名词,代词,不能跟ing 形式。如:After a short rest ,they went on with the work . 短暂休息之年,他们继续那项工作。

go on to do sth . 指接着做另外一件事。如:

After finishing the words , they went on to go over the text.结束单词后,他们接着通课文。 2) 类似意义的说法。

continue doing/ to do = go on doing;

go ahead with = go on with ,隐含有付出努力之意 keep on doing ① = go on doing ②指不顾困难,反对或警告而坚持做某事。如:He kept on smoking after the doctor told him to stop .医生告诉他停止后,

他还是继续抽烟。

go through 浏览;经历;历经

He went through several houses, but haven‘t bought one yet.

他看了好几套房子,但一套还没买。

The country has gone through too many wars.这个国家已经历了太多的战争。

The plan must go through several stages. 这个计划必须经历几个过程。 拓展:go through with完成

He hasn’t gone through with his composition yet. 他还没写完作文。

go with 与„„相配;适合。

I’d like a pair of shoes to go with my trousers.我想要一双和我的裤子相配的鞋。 go/do without 该短语表示“没有„„将就着也行”。Without既是介词也是副词,亦即带不带宾语都行。 [应用]完成句子

①他没钱买电视,只能过着没有电视的日子。 He had no money for a TV set,so he had to _______ _______ ______.

②我们没有地图也行。

We have no map but we can ________ ________ Key:①go,without,it ②do,without

had better (not) do sth.最好(不要)做某事。

用来委婉地提出建议或劝告.had通用于各种人称和数的形式.。

①You’d better give up smoking.It dose no good to your health.你最好把烟戒掉,吸烟对健康没好处。 ②she had better not come this evening .今晚她最好不要来。

hand down(=pass down)相传、传给 意思是“(从上代)传下来(给后代)”。

In poor families,clothes may be handed down from one child to the next.

hand back 把„„归还„„;hand in 面交,提出;hand on 传阅,依次传递;hand out 分发;hand over 移交。

happen句型归纳

(1)happen to do sth.(主语常为“人”),意为“碰巧。恰好”。to 后可用不定式的一般式to do,完成式to have done进行式to be doing如:

You happened to be out when I came to your house. 我到你家时,你正好出去了。

She happened to have just finished reading the book. 碰巧她刚刚读完那本书。

The two salesmen happened to be quarrelling when the manager entered.

经理进去时两个售货员碰巧在吵架。 (2)It(so)happen that„“(如此)碰巧,恰好”。如: It happens that he is a teacher of English. 恰好他是位英语老师。

It so happened that he was going that way too. 如此碰巧的是他也往那边走。

注意:句型1)和2)可互换,如:

I happened to have no money with me./It happened that I had no money with me. 我碰巧身上没带钱。

(3)happen to sb./sth. “某人/物出事,发生了„„情况”。

如:What has happened to your hand?你的手怎么了?

Be careful not to let anything happen to that child. 小心别让那个孩子出任何事。 [应用]选择正确答案

①—We haven’t heard from Jane for a long time.(MET’91)

—What do you suppose __________to her?

A.was happening B.to happen C.has happened D.having happened

②They happened to _______for Tianjin when we got there.(MET’)

A.leave B.have left C.leaving D.had left

③If anything __________you,let me know.

A.is happened to B.is happening C.happens on D.happens to Key:①C ②B ③D

have a right to do sth.有权做某事

right:①当名词用,可有复数形式如:human rights人权;但是当方向(右边)讲时,不可数,turn to the right向右转

②当形容词:a.右面的、向右的、政治上右倾的;b.对的、正确的、合适、恰当、正当;c.对头、没事了。如:

He didn’t feel quite right.他感觉不太舒服。 Your advice is right你的建议是对的。 Which is the right answer?哪个答案正确? ③当副词用,向右 Don’t forget to turn right when you meet a bookstore.看到那家书店别忘了向右转。 The crowd divided right and left. 人群走散了(各奔西东)。

have/find + difficulty/trouble + (in)doing sth ./ with

sth.

There be + difficulty/trouble + (in) doing sth./with sth.做某事有困难/麻烦;在„„方面有困难/麻烦。 其中的difficulty和trouble为不可数名词;doing前的介词in 可省略。

①I have some difficulty(in)pronouncing some English words.有些英语单词我发音有困难。

②Everyone in the town knew him; so we had no difficulty(in) finding his house。镇上所有的人都认识他,所有我们毫不费力就找到了他的家。

③The boy had little difficulty with maths.这孩子学数学没困难。

④There was much difficulty (in) finding him.好不容易才找到他。

have mercy on/upon sb.

该短语意为“宽恕(或可怜)某人”,类似的词组还有show mercy to sb.。

He always has mercy on the poor. at the mercy of „任由„„摆布,在„„的掌握中。 如:They were lost at sea,at the mercy of the winds and the waves.

have no choice but to do sth.

该结构意为“别无选择的干„„” 如:You have no choice but to obey me. have on,have…on have on 表示“穿着,戴着”,有have on sth.或have sth.,on结构,强调状态,无进行时,但有动词—ing短语形式。have„on表示“有事,有约(会)”。对比:

On Children’s Day,children always have on their new clothes. 儿童节那天孩子们总是穿着新衣服。 I’ve nothing on tomorrow.Let’s go together. 明天我没事,咱们一起去吧。

误:In fact the king was having nothing on.

正:In fact the king had nothing on.事实上国王什么也没穿。

正:The king having nothing on walked in the front.一丝不挂的国王走在最前面。 [应用]汉译英

①He has something on this evening.I’ve to go without him.

②He has his uniform on this evening.

have something(nothing,much,little)to do with与„„有(没有,有很大,有一点)关系。 ①I have nothing to do with that young man. ②His job has something to do with telephones.

③This has little to do with what we are talking about. ④Do you have anything to do with that club?

He sends his regards/best wishes/love to you. 带人问好时

也可用:Please remember me to your parents.

head vi.向„„前进,朝某方面行进。后面接for,forward的介词短语,或表示方向的副词east,eastward等。head south向南行 ①Where are we heading?

②Those ships are heading for HongKong. hear vt,;vi.

(1)听见、听到(声音)。

①Listen!I heard somebody knocking at the door.听!我听到有人敲门。 ②Old Granny can’t hear very well.老奶奶听觉不好了。

(2)hear that(宾从)听说某事

①I heard that he had come back.我听说他回来了。 ②I heard that we were going to Qingdao for a holiday.Is that true?听说我们要去青岛度假,是真的吗?

(3)hear of 听说;获悉。

①I have heard of him,though I don’t know him.尽管我不认识他,但我听说过他。

②They have never heard of American country music.他们从没听说过美国的乡村音乐。

③They have never heard American country music。他们从没听过美国的乡村音乐。 (4)hear from sb.收到某人的来信。

—Have you heard from Peter recently?最近收到彼得的信了吗?

—No,I haven’t heard from him for three months.没有。我已3个月没收到他的信了。 heart短语归纳

lose heart 失去信心;lose one’s heart to sb./sth.爱上某人/事;give heart to sb.鼓励某人;give one’s heart sb./sth.爱上某人/事;put one’s heart into 一心扑在某事上;heart and soul全心全意地;have a kind heart有一幅好心肠;break one’s heart使某人伤心;learn„by heart 记住,背诵;with a heavy/light heart 心情沉重地/轻松愉快地 [应用]完成句子

①这个队一场比赛未赢,结果灰心了。

The team had won no game and it ________ ________.

②我们很奇怪她怎么爱上一个外国老头。

We wonder why she ________ _________ ________ _______an old foreigner.

③世上无难事,只怕有心人。

Nothing is too difficult in the world if you _______ _______

________ _______it.

④全心全意地为人民服务是一个党员的义务。

It‘s the duty of a Party member to serve the people ________

_________ _________ __________.

Key:①lost,heart②lost,her,heart,to③put,your,heart,into④heart,and,soul help oneself to“自行取用(食物等),随意使用” Help yourself to more cakes. help to do sth.

该动宾结构意为“有助于干某事”,且不定式符号to 可以省略,即构成help do sth.的表达形式。如: ①This book helps to understand this question. ②Exercises help build up. hold短语归纳 hold one’s hand 抓住某人的手;hold me by the arm抓住我的胳臂;hold one’s breath屏住气;hold back one’s tears 忍住泪水;hold a meeting 开会;hold 100 passengers容纳100名乘客;hold a position守住阵地;hold back 阻止;hold one’s head high昂首,趾高气扬;hold up the wounded part 抬高受伤的部位; hold it tight 抓紧;hold everything in secret 对一切都保密;catch/get/take hold of a rope 抓住绳子;hold a child in one’s arms 怀抱孩子;hold a final examination举行期末考试 [应用]介、副词填空

①Nothing can hold______the wheel of the history. ②I held her _____ the hand and tried to follow her. ③He was saved by taking hold______ the big stick. ④Please hold______ your hand if you have any questions to ask.

Key: ①back ②by ③of ④up

How do you do ? 初次见面打招呼答语为How do you do ?也可用Nice /Glad/Pleased to meet you.熟人见面打招呼 How are you?随便一些可用Hello, Hi.

How do (did )you find„?(你觉得/认为„„怎么样?)是征求对方对某人、某事的看法或意见的用语。回答时在find 后要跟复合宾语。 How did you find the dishes? (I found them)Tasteless.

How do you find Peter Gray? I found him dishonest.

How long have you had it?你买了多久了? 瞬时动词come/go/leave/start/arrive/buy/die/join/borrow/marry

等不能与表示一段时间的状语连用。如how long, for 和 since所表示的时间。 ①他去世三年了。

不能说:He has died for 3 years.

而应说:He has been dead for 3 years/He died 3 years ago.

It is 3 years since he died. ②他参军多久了?

不能说:How long has he joined the army?

而应说:How long has he been in the army?/How long has he been a soldier?/How long is it since he joined the army?

how long/how soon/how far/how often

(1)how long 多久。表示一段时间,句中的动词应是延续性的。是对for 或since等所表示的时间状语的提问。

—How long have you lived here ?你在这里住多久了?

①—For three years.3年了。

②—Since 1997.从1997年至今。

③—Since I graduated from college.从大学毕业至今。

(2)how soon (将来)多久;(过)多久(以后)。是对in 所表示的时间状语的提问。

—How soon can you finish the work?多久你能完成这工作?

—In three hours. 3小时后。

(3)how far 多远。用来提问距离。

—How far is your hometown from here?你家乡离这里多远?

—Twenty kilometres.20公里。

(4)how often(每隔)多久;多经常。用来提问频度。 —How often do you usually go home?你多久回家一次?

—Twice a month. 一个月两次。

how to do sth.是由“疑问副词+动词不定式”构成的复合结构,在句中可作表语。

How to deal with it hasn‘t been decided. My question is how to feed so many people.

however adv. 然而;但是。表示转折,起承上启下的作用。本身具有相对的独立性,通常逗号与句子其他部分隔开。

①He likes singing. He can’t sing very well, however. 他喜欢唱歌,然而唱不好。

②He didn’t agree with me ; however, he said nothing.他不同意我的看法,但他什么也没说。 human(being)[c]人,与动物等对比的人(the human

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